Sunday, January 26, 2020
Theory Of Orientalism And Disneys Aladdin Film Studies Essay Using the concepts and theory of Orientalism from the lecture topic race and whiteness this essay will analyse the 1992 Disney film Aladdin. This essay will use the theory of Orientalism to analyse how Western culture depicts a constructed reality open the Eastern oriental body in order to promote an inferior East and a powerful West. This essay will first discuss what the concept and theory of Orientalism is before giving a brief synopsis of the movie Aladdin. This essay will then analysis the film Aladdin in relation to the constructed stereotypes that surround the oriental figure such as Western concepts of Eastern ideologies, physical appearance and the sexualising of the oriental figure. The concept of Orientalism can be described as the Wests objectifying and stereotyping of the East. What this means is Orientalism believes that western culture creates an identification of Eastern culture by assigning the East distinctive features and characteristics. These features and characteristics are assigned negative connotations, which are repeated through sources such as media until these negative connotations become the normalised way of seeing. Said suggests the stereotyping of Oriental representations functions to reduce the East to the status of inferior other of the West (Said, as cited in Pugliese, 2008, p.207). This essay uses the theory of Orientalism to analyse the film Aladdin and to deconstruct the Western themes of Orientalism imposed upon the Eastern other. The 1992 Disney film Aladdin is set in the ambiguous Middle Eastern city of Agribah. According to the Disneys website, the film follows the street-smart young thief protagonist Aladdin, as he pursues the beautiful Princess Jasmine, a liberated young lady who seeks to escape her present lifestyle. This plot is forwarded when the evil vizier, Jafar attempts to gain possession of a magical lamp in an attempt to rise to power, and decides he needs Aladdin a diamond in the rough (Disney, n.d.). We are able to see, even in the synopsis how Western media attempt to impose ideas upon Eastern figures. The Western protagonists are described as street-smart and beautiful and liberated, where as the Middle Eastern character of Jafar is described as evil. Western culture constructs and ideology of Eastern culture and beliefs and imposes these constructed ideas onto Eastern culture. From the beginning of the film there is an attempt at displaying the separation of ideologies between Eastern and Western cultures. With the people of the Middle Eastern city of Agrabah described as those who will cut off your ear if they dont like your face (Clements Musker, 1992). This description of the Eastern figure immediately imposes the idea of a barbaric individual and one other from normal society. It attempts to impose the idea that Eastern individuals carry a lack of morals and ethics. This is not the only imposed ideas on Eastern individuals, as later displayed in scenes with the antagonist characters Jafar and Gazeem. As Gazeem and Jafar attempt to enter Cave of Wonders the Western construction of the Eastern lack of morals is displayed. As Jafar asks Gazeem for the key to the cave Gazeem quips that he had to slit a few throats to get it (Clements Musker, 1992). This comment goes unrecognised by Jafar, and attempts to convey the Eastern individuals lack of compassion towards murder, and attempts to dehumanise the two Eastern characters. The Eastern character Gazeem then attempts to enter the Cave of Wonders, before moments later being engulfed by the mouth of the cave. The film has no sympathy for the Eastern villain and his death is shrugged off by the master villain Jafar stating Gazeem was obviously less than worthy (Clements Musker, 1992). The Western ideology is input through the films protagonist Aladdin. Aladdin encompasses the Western dream in his rags to riches story. Aladdin believes that he can one day make something of himself and be something of importance, an ideology which is seen as a goal in many Western societies. Throughout the film Aladdin must learn to be himself, and discovers the value of truth and honestly. Aladdins ideology of a life where he can be treated as an equal contrasts Jafars Eastern ideology that he can rise to power, and posses dominant control (Disney, n.d.). Jafars attempt at a rise to power'(Disney, n.d.) is symbolic of the Westerns fear of Eastern control, and inevitably Jafar/East must be stopped. In order to make the removal of the Eastern oriental figure favourable to audiences, the Eastern ideology is negatively constructed. Within the final scenes to prove Jafars difference and lack of morals Jafar is seen raising his hand to hit female protagonist Jasmine, an act condemned by many Western cultures. This act suggests the Easts lack of respect of women, and suggests an inferior and weak identity. In the film Aladdin the Western and Eastern characters do not only carry different ideologies but distinctively different appearances. Within the film the evil antagonist Jafar and henchmen Gazeem both carry the stereotypical Eastern appearance. The characters are both depicted as having darker skin, large noses and beards, and headdress which has become a characteristic associated with Middle Eastern appearance. These distinctive features as well as thick middle eastern accent become a signifier for the antagonists within the film. The characters such as the police and the man in the market place which threaten protagonists Aladdin and Jasmine both carry these characteristics. Within the film although the protagonists Aladdin and Jasmine are both intended to be of Eastern appearance they both carry American accents, and are lighter skinned than their Eastern counterparts. These characteristics allow the Western audience to accept these characters although they are also Eastern. Osuri suggests that whiteness emerges as a way of identifying groups of people associated with superiority (Osuri, 2008, p.199). What this means in terms of the film Aladdin is that the characters whiteness allows the audience to recognise subconsciously the superiority of these characters. This in turn positions these characters as the heroes and their whiteness allows the audience to support Aladdin and Jasmine, although they are also paradoxically Eastern. The gendered body also comes in to question when analysing the Oriental figure. As Pugliese suggests Orientalist discourses invariably represent the Orient as phallocentrically feminine contrasting the masculine West (2008, p.209). In Aladdin the oriental antagonist Jafar carries feminine attributes such as thin wrists, and it can be suggested his mannerisms carry that of a female. His use of large hand gestures is seen as inherently female, and his possession of jewellery carries female connotations. This characterising of the feminine oriental is intended to show the inferiority and weakness of the East in contrast to the masculine West. The masculine West is represented through the protagonist character of Aladdin, who contrasts the thin feminine oriental Jafar as the strong, muscular masculine West bounding through the streets of Agrabah. It should also be noted that throughout the film whilst all other males are seen wearing pants, Jafar the main Eastern antagonist is pictured wearing a long dress robe. The Middle Eastern appearance is much different from that of Western culture, and with Western Cultures very limited understanding of Middle Eastern culture the attempt at putting Jafar in a dress can be seen as a way of emasculating him as a male character. The emasculation of the male character also addresses his sexuality, and in the case of the oriental figure sexuality has always haunted its figuration. When examining the oriental figure, the sexualising of the oriental male accompanies its configuration. The Islamic male is displayed as the sexual deviant, indulging in a perverse form of sexual behaviour. In the film Aladdin the movies antagonist Jafar encompasses the characteristics of the sexualised oriental in the scene where he captures the female protagonist Jasmine. In this scene Jafar has the character Jasmine chained up, restricted in her movements. Her attire has now changed from her usual blue outfit to red, which can be seen as a symbol of Jafars ownership due to his trademark red attire throughout the movie. The movie also suggests Jafars sexual intent with Jasmine through scenes displayed at the beginning of the movie. Though subtle, Jasmines red outfit matches that of the suggested prostitutes which swoon over protagonist Aladdin as he bounds through the market place in his opening scene. By placing Jasmine in the same outfit the film suggests Jafars sexual intent, and the confinement from her chains suggests Jafar intends on keeping her as a sexual slave. This representation of the sexually frustrated oriental Jafar perpetuates the Western perspective that all Islamic men indulge in a perverse sexuality. As Puar and Rai suggest we often believe of the sexually frustrated Muslim men who are promised the heavenly reward of sixtyor even seventy virgins (2002, p.126). This representation of the sexualised oriental East perpetuates the difference and otherness which the West attempts to construct between East and West. The character Aladdin is representative of the Wests ideology of sexuality, and further constructs the idea of good Western sexuality, and evil East sexuality. In the opening scenes we see the masculine Aladdin running through the town of Agrabah being chased by the buffoonish Arab police. As he is doing so the audience is displayed a scene in which women are seen swooning over the young protagonist. Aladdin is seen talking to young women, as well as older women as he appears to effortlessly charm them with his Western charisma. Women are seen to be attracted to the analogy of the young Western male, initiating conversation in an attempt to be seen by him. This contrasts the Eastern Oriental male who is displays a perverse sexuality and must capture his female audience to gain attention. In conclusion when analysing the film Aladdin we are able to see how Orientalism affects the construction, and the reading of the film. While the film may first encompass the ideology of the rags to riches story, we are able to see that in order to further the Western protagonists story it must distort the Easts. This essay has displayed how Western culture enforces a constructed idea upon Eastern culture through constructing Western concepts of Eastern ideologies, physical appearance of the East and the sexualising of the oriental figure. These constructed ideas work to enforce the inferior East and the powerful West and create a cultural and racial hierarchy which works to promote the Wests cultural ideas.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Ethics are defined as individual perceptions of what is right or wrong, good or bad based on an individuals morals and values and also based on social values. Too often bribery is mistaken for lobbying. Bribery is illegal and short-term while lobbying is legal and a more permanent solution. There exists certain loopholes in law that allow for bribery to take place in the name of lobbying as was the case for the Winter Olympics Scandal where Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC) members gave gifts to International Olympic Committee (IOC) officials in a bid to influence them to pick salt lake city as the venue for the winter Olympics. Punishment for violating ethical and legal codes should be punitive as well as rehabilitative. However reforms should not be limited to the affected person to prevent future occurrences. Ethics, Morality, and Legality Bribery and lobbying are two phenomena that are very often misinterpreted such that it easy to confuse bribery for lobbying. According to the Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Online Dictionary, lobbying is Ã¢â¬Å"to promote, as a project, or secure the passage of, as legislation, by influencing public officialsÃ¢â¬ (lobbying, n. d. ). Bribery on the other hand is regarded as illegal, but there has been a great debate as to whether bribery should be considered as unethical or illegal. However, most scholars and business people regard bribery as a phenomenon that ought to be regarded as unethical. There is a difference between these two phenomena that should be explored. Harstard and Svensson, argues that through lobbying firms can be able to change the rules to their advantage (Harstard and Svensson, 2005). As an option the firm may prefer to offer a bureaucrat a bribe so that he may bend the rules for them so that they may avoid the cost of complying. While lobbying results in a change, a bribe only bends the rules. However while a change of rules is more permanent the bureaucrat does not commit to not asking for a bribe in future. Based on a simple growth model, firms tend to prefer to bribe when the expected development is low but prefer to lobby when the expected development is high (Harstard and Svensson, 2005). The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U. S. C. sec. 78) stipulates that it is illegal for US firms to give bribes locally or internationally. The act defines a bribe as an illegal payment meant to influence or sway an official to award or maintain a business activity. So there has to be possible profit from any venture for which a firm allegedly bribes in order for it qualify as a bribe. In the case of alleged bribery by members of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC) to the members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to select Salt Lake City as the 2002 Winter OlympicsÃ¢â¬â¢ venue the committee could have defended themselves in the following way: the committee could have argued that while it is illegal to give bribes, it was not illegal to give gifts and in fact the IOC rules provided for gift offering so long as the value of the gifts did not exceed 150 dollars. Ethics are defined as the beliefs about what is right or wrong, good and bad and is based on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s values and morals and how the behavior is perceived by society. Legal principles are derived from the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s or a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical principles. Since ethical and legal principles are what drive firms and societies in general, they are therefore important. Violation of ethical and legal principles should be punishable by legal sanctions such as imprisonment (Rawl, 1994). The former Volkswagen personnel director Klaus Volkert who sentenced to two years in prison for involvement in a bribery scandal that financed prostitutes and exotic holidays for union officials in order to get their support in management plans. However punishment should not be the only motive behind legal sanctions, the authorities should also aim at rehabilitating the affected person (Punishment, 2003). The remedies should not be limited to punishment of the affected employee rather there should be reforms in the entire organization in order to avert future scandals and to create a better business culture. Ethics drive organizations and societies. Each organization has its own code of ethics which must be followed by its personnel. Often bribery is mistaken for lobbying and might be used by organizations in a bid to achieve its goals. However bribery is illegal and goes against ethics and law. Those who engage in bribery should be punished. References Harstad, B. , Svensson, J. (2005). Bribe or Lobby: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a Matter of Development. Retrieved July 18 2010, from, http://www. kellogg. northwestern. edu/base/papers/harstad. pdf Lobbying. (n. d. ) Merriam Webster Dictionary. Retrieved July 18 2010, from, http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/lobbying Punishment. (2003). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 18 2010, from, http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/punishment/ Rawls, J. (1994). Punishment. Retrieved July 18 2010, from, http://ethics. sandiego. edu/Applied/deathpenalty/Rawls. html
Friday, January 10, 2020
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Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"35-57% of adolescent girls engage in crash dieting, fasting, self-induced vomiting, diet pills, or laxatives.Ã¢â¬ (nationaleatingdisorders.org). Eating disorders are an exceedingly serious illness that anyone can suffer from, and can lead to death. Most of the time, when someone has an eating disorder, they show at least some of the common signs and symptoms. Eating disorders are an extremely serious illness that can affect anyone, no matter what gender, race, or age. However, most commonly about 90% of the people that suffer from eating disorders are teens and young adult females (Cooperman 3). There are many different reasons that people can develop an eating disorder. Triggers can range from social factors to biological and psychological factors. Some of the common social factors that contribute to developing an eating disorder include bullying at school or work for being overweight, peer pressure to be skinny and have a Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ body, and the media giving people the idea of what everyone should look like in order to be rich, popular, and famous. Some of the common biological factors are gender, genetics, family background, and existing disorders such as anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Gender shows that females typically care more about their body appearance than males, which causes them to be more prone to developing an eating disorder. Approximately 85-95% of people that have anorexia or bulimia are female and 65% of people with binge-eating disorderShow MoreRelatedEating Disorders in Adolescents1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEating is a basic survival behavior. 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Obesity can affect any person from young children to older adults. A study done by the Centers of Disease Control and preventions showed that since 1980, one third of our adult population has become overweight. Many Americans are trying to fight the battle against obesity. Many arenÃ¢â¬â¢t winning. Type 2 diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and heart problems are just some of the risks that come with obesity in all ages. The eating habits of society have steadily become moreRead MoreBenefits Of Living A Healthy Lifestyle Essay983 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare most beneficial to a healthy life include sleep, diet and nutrition, and exercise. To live a healthy life starts at a young age. Living a healthy lifestyle when young is beneficial for adult life. One important aspect that is beneficial to adult health is sleep. Not getting the correct amount of sleep has immediate effects that are often overlooked. One important effect is the lack of energy. [If someone gets fewer hours of sleep one night, instead of the correct amount, their energy levelRead MoreBeauty Pageants Argumentative Essay1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe other hand, the abundance of memories and skills gained from these extravaganzas can create a positive effect on the child. On the negative side, pageants are found to be full of drama from both the parents and from the stress of the requirements, including eating disorders. They also lead to bad sportsmanship and the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s desperate attempts to win, even at the risk of their own children. According to The Merriam Webster Dictionary (1899), the definition of a beauty contest, also called a pageantRead MoreThe Controversy Over The Unrealistic Body Image1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesissues in young girls. The Barb ie doll, introduced by Mattel, Inc. in 1959, can easily be considered the most popular doll in the world with 99% of 3 to 10 year olds owning at least one Barbie doll, and an average of eight Barbie dolls each just in the United States (Rogers, 1999). Barbie has received extensive criticism over the years for her ultrathin and highly unattainable body proportions. A majority of the relevant literature has focused on the influence of body ideals on adults, and not enoughRead MoreEssay about Anorexia1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages It seems today that eating disorders are on the rise. While this may be true, the numbers may appear to grow only because more cases are being brought out into the open. The purpose of this paper is to discuss eating disorders and prove the these disease, specifically Anorexia Nervosa, continue to plague of women due to psychological and environmental factors along with pressure from the media. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Anorexia NervosaÃ¢â¬ is misleading. It means Ã¢â¬Å"loss of appetite due to nerves.Ã¢â¬ But people with