Saturday, November 30, 2019
LSD Despite the negative portrayal in mainstream 1960s media, justifications expressed by counterculture activists for further investigation, education and experimentation under government control of LSD were rational and valid arguments. Sex, drugs, protests, war, political upheaval, cultural chaos, and social rebellion; the many comforts TV dinner eating, republican voting, church going, suburbia conformists tried to escape through conservative ideals, town meetings, and The Andy Williams Family Hour. National consciousness in 1960s United States was alive, but existed differently in every mind it dwelled, and stirred uninterrupted in every life to which it was introduced. A dream of money, success, and a house with a white picket fence still existed within the pandemonium of the nation and many still relished in the idea of "Americanism." Television was a base for a magnitude of world news and national information. Television situation comedies created ideal families and contenting distractions from unsettling national realities. Mainstream media, both fact and fiction, influenced the nation's minds resulting in the effect of political change and further media influence over the government. The new decade, along with the effects of the Vietnam War and the strong influence of television, began to leak from the cracks of the nation a new counterculture of rebellious teenagers, unfamiliar narcotics, and a wave of promiscuity. Among the many issues and events molding our nation into a new decade, came the question of government and mind control. For some it was the next step into human evolution, a potential tool for mind control, a liberator of human kind, but for most LSD helped define 1960s counterculture, in which it was deeply rooted. LSD has proved that the mind contains much higher powers and energies, beyond the average10% of the brain that a typical human uses. These powers and energies, under the right circumstances, can be taken advantage of to benefit human kind spiritually, creatively, therapeutically, and intellectually. LSD has given human kind the option to chemically trigger mental energies and powers. Arguments that LSD is potentially a dangerous discovery and mind control should be strictly prohibited by the government holds much validity, although there are benefits and arguments of personal freedom of neurology to consider. Whether LSD reflects negativity as a weapon and mind control drug, or radiates euphoria as a mind-expanding chemical and sacrament, the choice to engage in such an experience should be through personal reasoning. It is not the states and other bureaucracies' duties to take control of the human brain and body. We no longer live in an age of industrial muscularity, and in this time of neurological intelligence, we should have the individual choice and freedom to further engage in the depths of our consciousness, if we are so graced with an option to do so. "No one can limit, restrict, or try to control how you access, activate, manipulate your own brain through the use of drugs." Temperance, moderation, and education should be applied to the use of mind control, but not restricting personal freedoms of neurology. Dr. Timothy Leary agrees: It's ludicrous and ominous to think that the government will try to limit, restrain, control where you're going to put your head, and how you're going to manage and direct your own neurology. That's the basis of your own freedom. Now, as far as behavior is concerned, if what you do in your head leads you to violate any behavioral law, a traffic law, or impose on the rights of the people?then you should be busted. But in the privacy of your own home, your own body, and your own brain, that's your business. Likewise, other individual freedoms justifying further investigation, education, and experimentation of LSD under moderate government control are questioned. The freedoms of spirituality and creativity are, similar to neurological freedom, issues in result of the use of psychedelic drugs. Spiritually, psychedelic drugs, are sacraments: divine substances no matter who uses them, in whatever sprit, with whatever intention. LSD, along with other drugs generates spiritual discovery and perception. Creatively, LSD has extreme potential; it is "a tool to explore the creative attributes of the mind." Dr. Oscar Janigar states, continuing that this tool could equal to "four years of art education." The further appreciation of the power of human thought, and the exploration of the boundaries of the human mind, LSD provokes, is extremely beneficial in freeing ones mind and taking full advantage of the powers in which the mind possesses. Within these powers LSD evokes is the capacity to resolve, therapeutically, personal emotional conflict. Although LSD, as previously proven, has its benefits it has yet to rise
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The History Behind the Ballad of Mary Hamilton A folk ballad, possibly no older than the 18th century, tells a story about a servant or lady-in-waiting, Mary Hamilton, at the court of a Queen Mary, who had an affair with the king and was sent to the gallows for drowning her illegitimate child. The song refers to four Maries or four Marys: Mary Seaton, Mary Beaton,Ã and Mary Carmichael, plus Mary Hamilton. The Usual Interpretation The usual interpretation is that Mary Hamilton was a lady-in-waiting at the Scottish court of Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587) and that the affair was with the Queens second husband, Lord Darnley. Accusations of infidelity are consistent with stories of their troubled marriage. There were four Maries sent to France with the young Mary, Queen of Scots, by her mother, Mary of Guise, when the Scottish queen (whose father died when she was an infant) went to be raised there to marry the French Dauphin. But the names of two in the song are not quite accurate. The four Maries serving Mary, Queen of Scots, were Mary Beaton, Mary Seton, Mary Fleming, and Mary Livingston. And there was no story of an affair, drowning and hanging historically connected with the real four Maries. There was the 18th-century story of a Mary Hamilton, from Scotland, who had an affair with Peter the Great, and who killed her child by Peter and her two other illegitimate children. She was executed by decapitation on March 14, 1719. In a variation of that story, Peters mistress had two abortions before she drowned her third child. It is possible that an older folk song about the Stewart court was conflated with this story. Other Possibilities There are other possibilities that have been offered as roots of the story in the ballad: John Knox, in his History of the Reformation, mentions an incident of infanticide by a lady-in-waiting from France, after an affair with the apothecary of Mary, Queen of Scots. The couple was reported to have been hanged in 1563.Some have speculated that the old Queen referred to in the song was the Queen of Scots Mary of Guelders, who lived from about 1434 to 1463, and who was married to Scotlands King James II. She was regent for her son, James III, from her husbands death when a cannon exploded in 1460 to her own death in 1463. A daughter of James II and Mary of Guelders, Mary Stewart (1453 to 1488), married James Hamilton. Among her descendants was Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.More recently, Englands George IV, while still the Prince of Wales, is rumored to have had an affair with a governess of one of his sisters. The governess name? Mary Hamilton. But no story of a child, much less infanticide. Other Connections The story in the song is about unwanted pregnancy; could it be that the British birth control activist, Marie Stopes, took her pseudonym, Marie Carmichael, from this song? In Virginia Woolfs feminist text, A Room of Ones Own, she includes characters named Mary Beton, Mary Seton and Mary Carmichael. The History of the Song The Child Ballads were first published between 1882 and 1898 as The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. Francis James Child collected 28 versions of the song, which he classified as Child Ballad #173. Many refer to a Queen Marie and four other Maries, often with the names Mary Beaton, Mary Seaton, Mary Carmichael (or Michel) and the narrator, Mary Hamilton or Mary Mild, though there are some variations in the names. In various versions, she is the daughter of a knight or of the Duke of York or Argyll, or of a lord in the North or in the South or in the West. In some, only her proud mother is mentioned. Select Stanzas The first five and the last four stanzas from version 1 of Child Ballad #173: 1. Words gane to the kitchen,And words gane to the ha,That Marie Hamilton gangs wi bairnTo the hichest Stewart of a.2. Hes courted her in the kitchen,Hes courted her in the ha,Hes courted her in the laigh cellar,And that was warst of a.3. Shes tyed it in her apronAnd shes thrown it in the sea;Says, Sink ye, swim ye, bonny wee babe!Youl neer get mair o me.4. Down them cam the auld queen,Goud tassels tying her hair:O marie, wheres the bonny wee babeThat I heard greet sae sair? 5. There never was a babe intill my room,As little designs to be;It was but a touch o my sair side,Come oer my fair bodie.15. Oh little did my mother think,The day she cradled me,What lands I was to travel through,What death I was to dee.16. Oh little did my father think,The day he held up me,What lands I was to travel through,What death I was to dee.17. Last night I washd the queens feet,And gently laid her down;And a the thanks Ive gotten the nichtTo be hangd in Edinbro town!18. Last nicht there was four Maries,The nicht therel be but three;There was Marie Seton, and Marie Beton,And Marie Carmichael, and me.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Global Warming Overview and Causes Global warming, the general increase in the earths near-surface air and ocean temperatures, remains a pressing issue in a society that has expanded its industrial use since the mid-twentieth century. Greenhouse gases, atmospheric gases that exist to keep our planet warm and prevent warmer air from leaving our planet, are enhanced by industrial processes. As human activity such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation increases, greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide is released into the air. Normally, when heat enters the atmosphere, it is through short-wave radiation; a type of radiation that passes smoothly through our atmosphere. As this radiation heats the earths surface, it escapes the earth in the form of long-wave radiation; a type of radiation that is much more difficult to pass through the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere causes this long-wave radiation to increase. Thus, heat is trapped inside of our planet and creates a general warming effect. Scientific organizations around the world, including The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the InterAcademy Council, and over thirty others, have projected a significant change and future increase in these atmospheric temperatures. But what are the real causes and effects of global warming? What does this scientific evidence conclude in regards to our future? Causes of Global Warming Nylon and nitric acid production, the use of fertilizers in agriculture, and the burning of organic matter also release the greenhouse gas Nitrous Oxide. These are processes that have been expanded since the mid-twentieth century. Melting of the Polar Ice Caps Melting ice caps will desalinize the ocean and disrupt natural ocean currents. Since ocean currents regulate temperatures by bringing warmer currents into cooler regions and cooler currents into warmer regions, a halt in this activity may cause extreme climate changes, such as Western Europe experiencing a mini-ice age. Another important effect of melting ice caps lies in a changing albedo. Albedo is the ratio of the light reflected by any part of the earths surface or atmosphere. Since snow has one of the highest albedo levels, it reflects sunlight back into space, helping to keep the earth cooler. As it melts, more sunlight is absorbed by the earths atmosphere and the temperature tends to increase. This further contributes to global warming. Wildlife Habits/Adaptations Another example of changing wildlife adaptations involves the polar bear. The polar bear is now listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Global warming has significantly reduced its sea ice habitat; as the ice melts, polar bears are stranded and often drown. With the continuous melting of ice, there will be fewer habitat opportunities and risk in the extinction of the species. Ocean Acidification/Coral Bleaching Since coral is very sensitive to increased water temperature over a long period of time, they lose their symbiotic algae, a type of algae that gives them coral color and nutrients. Losing these algae results in a white or bleached appearance, and is eventually fatal to the coral reef. Since hundreds of thousands of species thrive on coral as a natural habitat and means of food, coral bleaching is also fatal to the living organisms of the sea. Floods and Droughts and Global Warming Global warming has caused heavy rains in the United States due to warmer air having the ability to hold more water vapor than cooler air. Floods that have impacted the United States since 1993 alone have caused over $25 billion in losses. With increased floods and droughts, not only will our safety be affected, but also the economy. Population Risk and Unsustainable Development Similarly, climate change impinges on sustainable development. In developing Asian countries, a cyclic disaster occurs between productivity and global warming. Natural resources are needed for heavy industrialization and urbanization. Yet, this industrialization creates immense amounts of greenhouse gases, thus depleting the natural resources needed for further development of the country. Without finding a new and more efficient way to use energy, we will be depleted of our natural resources needed for our planet to thrive. Climate Policy Other U.S. and international policies, such as the Climate Change Science Program and the Climate Change Technology Program, have been reinstated with a comprehensive objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through international cooperation. As the governments of our world continue to understand and acknowledge the threat of global warming to our livelihood, we are closer to reducing greenhouse gases to a manageable size. Personal Action This reduction can also be made by improving vehicle-fuel efficiency. Driving less than needed or buying a fuel-efficient car will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although its a small change, many small changes will someday lead to a bigger change. Recycling whenever possible greatly reduces the energy needed to create new products. Whether it is aluminum cans, magazines, cardboard, or glass, finding the nearest recycling center will aid in the fight against global warming. Global Warming and The Road Ahead As global warming progresses, natural resources will be further depleted, and there will be risks of wildlife extinctions, melting of the polar ice caps, coral bleaching and disintegration, floods and droughts, disease, economic disaster, sea level rise, population risks, unsustainable land, and more. As we live in a world characterized by industrial progress and development aided by the help of our natural environment, we are also risking depletion of this natural environment and thus of our world as we know it. With a rational balance between protecting our environment and developing human technology, we will live in a world where we can simultaneously progress the capabilities of mankind with the beauty and necessity of our natural environment.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Paper on International Economics - Essay Example Protectionism, in other words, has survived globalisation and in that survival is both a testimony and concession to the fact that, beyond the globalisation-rhetoric, the state has retained its role as a significant economic player. There is no doubt that globalisation has reduced the role of the state in the economy but, there is equally no doubt that protectionism has survived globalisation and remains one of the more significant of the state's instruments for ensuring the welfare of its domestic market. Following a definition of protectionism and an examination of its pre- and post-globalisation forms and mechanisms, this paper shall argue that despite arguments to the contrary, protectionism often serves fundamental and constructive economic purposes. In general, it is possible to define protectionism as strategies used by a national economy to protect its own goods, industries and businesses from unfair competition or, in some instances, from competition per se. Often criticized by economist and free-trade proponents such as Adam Smith among others, protectionism is not only a logically valid strategy for the protection of domestic economies from such unfair economic competition as could have adverse effects upon infant industries and domestic producers and manufacturers, but it often imposes itself upon decision-makers as the only viable mechanism for the fulfilment of the aforementioned. Indeed, as important as it may be for Lesser Developing and Developing nations, protectionism is as important for Industrialised economies. As Schwartz (2000) succinctly explains, protectionism traditionally functions to protect national economies from all of the virtual destruction of domestic industries, unemployment and inflation (Schwartz, 2000). It does so through the utilisation of a wide array of strategies, ranging from implementation of prohibitions against the entry of certain imports into the domestic economy to the imposition of heavy customs, tariffs and taxes upon specified imports in order to ensure that, upon entry into the domestic market, domestic goods retain a price-competitive edge (Schwartz, 2000). Proceeding from the information presented in the preceding paragraph, it is possible to articulate a definition for protectionism. In brief, protectionism can be defined as a
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Ethical Issues - Essay Example Ethics can also constitute a framework of co-operation between individuals who depend on each other, which is referred to as a kind of symbiosis, wherein both politics and economics are advanced symbiosis. Ethics was primarily concerned with relations between individuals, like the Mosaic Decalogue, which later evolved into relation between individual and society and the Golden Rule tries to find a mean between these two. Man's relation to land has not been studied ethically, and so humans enjoy the privileges without fulfilling their obligations. In the use of natural resources is found the greatest question of ethics, since it is a resource on which all individuals can claim ownership. The conservation movement of our times is the beginning of the understanding of our relation with land. Man, on account of this communal living, is being seen as a member of the land community and thus it is binding on him to respect this individual, called land. Men have been shaped by the characteristics of the land on which they live. The Mississippi Valley would have been different if the land had not yielded bluegrass, while the pioneers in the South-west, due to livestock grazing caused land deterioration. This plant succession turned the course of history and that is why, land as community is invaluable. When humans live in ... In southern Wisconsin, in spite of the farmers being offered lucrative deals to conserve the environment, were found to apply their knowledge only in those areas, which gave them monetary gains and failed to practice those which may have profited the community. When asked to frame laws in exchange for community help, in maintaining their lands, they failed to do so, because it might impede their economic progress. They lacked the ecological conscience which alone can improve the environment. Land Ethics and the government Attempts at conservation generally fail because of their lack of economic value. Wild flowers and songbirds are tossed aside in spite of being an integral part of the biotic community. Many animals which may have been hunted down to extinction were saved by attaching economic importance to them. Trees which fail to give monetary returns are cut down, but in Europe, ecological enlightenment recognizes non-commercial trees as natives of the forest, hence guaranteeing their preservation. In America, government agencies promote conservation, but private landowners alone can bring about better land ethics. Men whose industries are land or forest based decry governmental regulations in land conservation. The other alternative would be that more obligation should be assigned to the private land owner so that improvement could be brought about in relation to ownership of land. Population and Land Health The density of population has an adverse impact on land health which results in exploitative agriculture. Wastage is rampant in many areas and the blame is placed on climatic changes. The soil that was once rich is depleted of nutrients which results later in poor
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Managing safely project Essay Introduction As part of the Managing safely course, you have to complete a project and have it assessed. You will be expected to carry out a risk assessment based on your own work environment. You need to record the results on the attached sheets and submit them for marking. Do not submit any additional material in support of your project work as only the six parts of the A4 project will be assessed. The project can be word processed or hand written. When you have completed your work you should return it to There is a two week time limit for the return of the project. Your project must be completed and returned by Instructions Please read all of the instructions before starting work on your project. The project is broken down into a number of parts. Please complete each section as detailed below. Part 1 Ã¢â¬â description of the work tasks that are your responsibility Record a brief description of all the work tasks within your work environment including: description/labelled sketch of the location(s) Ã people who work in or visit the area on a regular basis or from time to time. (Think about the different groups of people who may be in the area and how often they may be there.) permanent and temporary items of equipment and substances activities carried out within your work environment Part 2 Ã¢â¬â a hazard checklist of the location(s) Record a brief description of three location hazards that may arise in your work environment. For example, car park, stairs, uneven floor. For each of these hazards please include: a description of the location a description of the hazard Ã¢â¬â in relation to the location the number and occupation of people who could be affected by the hazard Ã¢â¬â in relation to the location whether a risk assessment is recommended Part 3 Ã¢â¬â a hazard checklist of permanent and/or temporary items of equipment and substances used in your work environment Record a brief description of three hazards that may arise from equipment or substances used. For each of these hazards please include: a description of permanent and/or temporary items of equipment and substances used a description of the hazard Ã¢â¬â in relation to the equipment/substance the number and occupation of people who could be affected by the hazard in relation to the equipment/substance whether a risk assessment is recommended Part 4 Ã¢â¬â a hazard checklist of the activities carried out within your work environment Record a brief description of three hazards that may arise from within your work environment. For each of these hazards please include: a description of the work activity a description of the hazard Ã¢â¬â in relation to the work activity the number and occupation of people who could be affected by the hazard Ã¢â¬â in relation to the work activity Note: for the purpose of this exercise all three activity hazards that youÃ are assessing on part 4 must require a risk assessment. Part 5 Ã¢â¬â carrying out a risk assessment Please carry out a risk assessment on all three of the activity hazards you have listed on part 4. Please make sure you include: a description of the work activity a description of the hazard, hazardous event and expected consequence Ã¢â¬â in relation to the work activity the number and occupation of people affected Ã¢â¬â in relation to the work activity an assessment of risk (please use the 5 x 5 matrix) Ã¢â¬â in relation to the work activity Note: for the purpose of this exercise all three activity hazards that you are assessing on part 5 must require risk controls. Part 6 Ã¢â¬â risk control recommendations Please complete the risk control form for all three activity hazards you have listed on part 5. Please make sure you include: a description of the work activity and risk level from the risk assessment existing risk controls any further risk controls required in relation to the work activity the residual risk (please use the 5 x 5 matrix) in relation to the work activity a description of the type of monitoring required and how often in relation to the residual risk Note: where you have large numbers of hazards in your work environment you will not have space to record them all. In these circumstances, select a representative sample of hazards for the purposes of this project and record only these. Remember that only three hazards are required for parts 2, 3, and 4. Each part has a maximum number of marks which can be awarded and details areÃ given in the table below.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Human Beings as the Puppets of Society Sociologists have long argued about whether or not we are controlled by the structure of the society in which we live, in other words, are we or are we not Ã¢â¬Ëpuppets of societyÃ¢â¬â¢. Social structure theorists such as Functionalists and conflict theorists like Marxists, believe that we are Ã¢â¬ËpuppetsÃ¢â¬â¢ and that our behaviour is controlled by the structure of the society in which we live. Both theories suggest that people are controlled by society but this argument is opposed by social action theorists such as Symbolic Interactionists who believe that society is created by the individuals themselves. To show far it can be argued that human beings are Ã¢â¬Ëpuppets of societyÃ¢â¬â¢ this essay will look at functionalism and social control through the family, Marxism and social control within the education system and then look at the opposing theory of Symbolic Interactionism. It is also intended to discuss the recent structuration theory of Giddens who argues that these theories are no longer valid in determining if we are Ã¢â¬ËpuppetsÃ¢â¬â¢ because both structure and action are necessary for society to exist and thus in some instances in our lives we are Ã¢â¬ËpuppetsÃ¢â¬â¢ and others we are not. According to Jones, Functionalists like Durkheim consider Ã¢â¬Ëhuman behaviour as learned behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢(2004, p.6), in other words everything we know and do has to be taught to us given that when we are born we have no knowledge of anything. They argue that all our behaviour is learnt through the socialisation process. Functionalists consider that primary socialisation is the basis to learning the norms, values and roles of society and... ...eeded, so it could be argued, therefore, that even though at times we are free agents and have an individual choice in our actions we are also Ã¢â¬Ëpuppets of societyÃ¢â¬â¢ because of the many of the structures of society. References List Czerniawski, G., 2004. What is the Role of Education? Sociology Review, 14 (2), 24-25 Giddens, A., 2002. Sociology. 4th ed. Polity Press Jones, P., 2004. Introducing Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press Wilson, A., 1985. Society Now: Family. London: Tavistock Publications Bibliography Moore, S., 2001. Sociology Alive. 3rd ed. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd Haralambos and Holborn, 2000. Sociology Themes and Perspectives. 5th ed. London: Collins Educational Bauman Z & May T., 2003. Thinking Sociologically. 2nd ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Monday, November 11, 2019
The Second Great Awakening laid the foundations of the development of present-day religious beliefs and establishments, moral views, and democratic ideals in the United States. Beginning back in late eighteenth century and lasting until the middle of the nineteenth century,1 this Protestant awakening sought to reach out the un-churched and bring people to a much more personal and vivid experience of Christianity. Starting on the Southern frontier and soon spreading to the Northeast, the Second Great Awakening has also been associated as a response against the growing liberalism in religion Ã¢â¬â skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity. 2 Although the movement is well-known to be just a period of religious revival, its tremendous effects still influence the nation even up to now. The lasting impacts of the revolution include the shift of the dominating Christian theology from predestination to salvation for all, the emergence and growth of religious factions, the escalation of involvement in secular affairs, and the shaping of the country into a more egalitarian society. These footprints left by the Second Great Awakening helped mold America into what it is today. Contrary to the popular belief of predestination during the First Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening emphasized salvation for all, which eventually replaced the former as the dominating Christian theology in America even up to now. 3 During the American Revolution, the largest church denominations were the Quakers, the Congregationalists, and the Anglicans. These earlier denominations believed in a Calvinist theology called predestination. In basic terms, predestination exemplifies that God already predetermined from the beginning of time those who are saved from hell and those who are not. However, this doctrine did not match the Revolutionary spirit of national and personal accomplishment. Thus, when the Second Great Awakening extended throughout the country, most post-war Americans abandoned strict notions of Calvinism and shifted to the Arminian theology of universal salvation through personal faith and devotional service. Instead of being predestined to either heaven or hell, this doctrine states that salvation can be acquired through faith by anyone; people have the choice to either accept or reject GodÃ¢â¬â¢s salvation.4 While traditional Calvinism had taught election into heaven depending solely on the will of God, evangelical Protestants preached that the rebirth and redemption of the soul rests on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s inner faith.5 In addition, the Arminian theology also taught the need to improve the world around us as a preparation for the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. By sharing these concepts, religious reformers attracted just about everyone, mostly those in need of deliverance and economic activists. Churches that adopted this theology, such as Baptists and Methodists, surpassed the previous leading church factions. As of today, both are still the chief Protestant denominations in the United States.6 The spread of revivalism in the period of the Second Great Awakening led to the fueling growth of Christian denominations in America. Today, as the largest religion, not only in the United States but in the whole world, Christianity holds a great number of church denominations. 7 Many of these denominations either experienced a significant boom of membership or trace their roots back in this era of renewal. As the movement swept through southern Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, congregations who garnered these numerous converts were the Methodist and Baptist. Both denominations were based on an elucidation of manÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual equality before God, which aided their goal to acquire more members and preachers from a varied range of classes and races. Also, since the south, at that time, had a predominantly rural economy and poorly developed infrastructures and establishments, religious organizations functioned as a physical symbol of relief providing social stability for the populace.8 Camp meetings and missionary preachers were also primary reasons for the growth in the membership of both factions.9 With the idea of free will becoming prevalent, new denominations were produced by the movement. Two of these denominations were the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the African Methodist Episcopal. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Ã¢â¬â commonly known as Mormons was founded by Joseph Smith; he was inspired to create a new church faction by the revivals he experienced in the western area of New York called the Ã¢â¬Å"Burned Over District-Ã¢â¬ implying it had been Ã¢â¬Å"scorchedÃ¢â¬ by so many revivals. Although not regarded as a splinter off from an existing Protestant denomination but a restoration of primitive Christianity having distinctive post-biblical doctrines, the Mormon Church is now a flourishing, worldwide denomination. On the other hand, during the revivals, Baptists and Methodists converted large numbers of blacks. However, because of the mistreatment they received from their fellow believers, under the leadership of Richard Allen, the black population broke away from the Methodist church while creating their own denomination; the African Methodist Episcopal.10 Both churches mentioned above, having developed and sprouted out other denominations over the years, still stand even today. While new religious ideas fanned out and denominations proliferated, social activism, in response, also began to escalate. The Second Great Awakening stirred the initiation of many reform movements in belief to cure the ills and defects of the civilization before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ.11 Charles Finney, one of the most prominent figure in the awakening, exhorted people to choose God, turn away from their sin and repent, and then work to make the world around them a little better. He inspired American Christians to open their eyes to the problems of the world. With the encouragements of revivalists such as Finney, social reforms started taking action. Advocates of the temperance movement, mostly women, condemned various effects of the role of alcohol in public life.12 A revivalist named Lyman Beecher preached people to voluntarily discontinue drinking alcohol saying it could easily cause people to sin. Another secular issue tackled by the movement was slavery. Charles Finney proved to be not only an inspirational revivalist but also a devoted abolitionist; he encouraged Christians to view slavery as a moral issue rather than a political or economic one. It took several years, but the abolitionistsÃ¢â¬â¢ effort to end slavery in America paid off13 Ã¢â¬â as shown by the 13th Amendment.14 Other reformers pursued the improvement of conditions in cities, prisons, and asylums. They aimed at helping deprived people to concentrate on their own spiritual situation, rather than just their living conditions. The moral idea of improving the world around us are still followed by Americans, Christian or non-Christian, who still send out missionaries and donate more time and money to charitable works around the world. Social reforms in the Second Great Awakening became the platform for the rise of egalitarian rights in the society. For centuries, America embodied an unofficial hierarchy in which blacks, women, and children were degraded while white, male adults with property reigned. However, this idea began to crumble down as social activism increased. With the victory of the abolitionist movement, which was greatly strengthened by the movement, slavery was abolished; thus, opening the door to the equality of races. And as women became more involved in charitable affairs, advocating the temperance movement and supporting abolitionists, the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights reform with a purpose to make women equal to men in the eyes of society and the law was established; soon, they began advocating for their own right to vote. Educational reforms also rose up, resolved to make elementary school education mandatory and free of cost in order to guarantee the broadening of educated citizens in the nation. 15 These reforms, as evident in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, were successful in preparing the step for the institution of equality in the United States irrespective of race, gender, or religion. Now the United States has become a place where everybody is equal in front of the law and for the most part in the eyes of society. Overall, the events driven by the Second Great Awakening steered the defining characteristics of the United States into a different direction. With the predominant theology of free will, the growth of diversified religious factions, the entwining of Christian values with civic values and involvement in worldly problems, and expanding of democratic ideals Ã¢â¬â America has developed into the country it is right now. Although the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening has already cooled down, its legacy remains permanent.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
On the surface Ã¢â¬ËprocrastinationÃ¢â¬â¢ is an ideologically and psychologically fixed term Ã¢â¬â it is presumed that procrastination is definitely bad and is to be avoided. Thus there exists a whole plethora of books which seek to cure this tendency of Ã¢â¬Ëdelaying. Ã¢â¬â¢ And as far as such efforts go, this book is no exception, rather her book like so many others in its category systematically prescribes how to overcome what the ancients like St. Augustine called Ã¢â¬ËacediaÃ¢â¬â¢ (depression leading to inordinate delays in doing anything within a time frame. What Burka misses is that it may be fine to procrastinate on doing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s laundry over writing a thesis; to delay shaving over finishing a novel started from last night. BurkaÃ¢â¬â¢s book suffers from giving equal importance to every work and an overt tendency to pre-plan everything. This need to plan and work towards goals is a recent phenomenon in self-help literature. Time Ã¢â¬â management books especially hinge on the setting of goals. There is a fear that by over-regimentation they kill all spontaneity and joy from life and make us automatons. But if one argues that the book is intended for clinically malefficient procrastinators then one ought to point out that self-help books are hardly written for those who need mental help. There is another point regarding this book. It is definitely a secularization of the concept of procrastination. In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries and even later, Ã¢â¬ËdelayingÃ¢â¬â¢ was inevitably associated with the cardinal sin of sloth. This book opens up the issue for humanistic debates, albeit their humanism is rooted in the ontogeny of Freud. Burka and Yeun devote a whole chapter to the interrogation of procrastination as a formed infantile reaction to clinically significant psychological events. Fear is seen as the source for the ultimate interiorization of chronically delayed work habits. They list many different fears Ã¢â¬â the fear of losing, the fear of being humiliated, etc. Ultimately it is seen that all the various phobias are just related to the process of self-actualization and Jungian individuation. In a very interesting and significant paper Jennifer M. Kosmas1 gives a similar phobic-oriented account of procrastination. Whereas she and other experts in the field are highly technical and do not try to see how the tendency to delay can be prevented; Burka and Yeun posit a reductive approach to problem solving and thus, delay Ã¢â¬â negation. In this they follow the beaten path, not merely of psychiatrists but of self-help gurus and time management experts like the legendary Stephen Covey. Covey in his The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People asks us all to problem-solve by breaking the problem into parts and then working towards the solution within fixed time frames. All this is traditional and time-tested but the real problem for true procrastinators in not to only know the cause of their disease but rather for them, it is a mortal combat against the inertia caused by time itself. This is where the book fails. It falls short of giving any really effective formula to any reader which would impel him or her to just get up and doing a thing. One can plan and write all sorts of goals and have strict time frames; this book creates a programme of two weeks for procrastination de-addiction; but at the end one might just refuse to go running according to the planned start of any exercise regimen. In the final analysis, this book is a clearly written and popular account of procrastination but it fails miserably as a serious book with any real clinical significance. Innumerable studies have shown that procrastination is often psychosomatic and related with depression. The authors, in spite of being practicing psychiatrists, do not really tackle these issues. The parable like examples strewn throughout the book are just Chicken Soup (the popular series) sort of stories. The more serious sort of reader and patient will do better to study the original Freudian works on infantile hysteria and then read Stephen CoveyÃ¢â¬â¢s books.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
English Learning Tips for ESL Learners and Classes Here are a number of English learning tips to help you or your class improve your English. Choose a few English learning tips to get started today! Ask yourself weekly: What do I want to learn this week? Asking yourself this question every week will help you stop and think for a moment about what is most important to you. It is easy to focus only on the current unit, grammar exercise, etc. If you take a moment to stop and set a goal for yourself every week, you will notice the progress you are making and, in turn, become more inspired by how quickly you are learning English! You will be surprised at how this feeling of success will motivate you to learn even more English. More on how to improve your general approach to learning English. Quickly review important new information shortly before going to bed. Research has shown that our brains process information that is fresh in our brains while we sleep. By shortly (this means very quickly - just a glance at what you are working on at the moment) going over some exercise, reading, etc. before you go to sleep, your brain will work away on this information while you sleep! Other ideas on how your brain works While doing exercises and alone at home or in your room, speak English aloud. Connect the muscles of your face to the information in your head. Just as understanding the basics of tennis does not make you a great tennis player, understanding grammar rules do not mean you can automatically speak English well. You need to practice the act of speaking often. Speaking of yourself at home and reading the exercises you are doing will help connect your brain to your facial muscles and improve pronunciation and make your knowledge active. Do five to ten minutes of listening at least four times a week. In the past, I decided I needed to get fit and went jogging - usually three or four miles. Well, after not having done anything for many months, those three or four miles really hurt! Needless to say, I did not go jogging for another few months! Learning to understand spoken English well is very similar. If you decide that you going to work hard and listen for two hours, chances are that you will not do extra listening exercises any time soon. If on the other hand, you start off slowly and listen often, it will be easier to develop the habit of listening to English on a regular basis. Look for situations in which you must speak/read/listen to English This is probably the most important tip. You need to use English in a real world situation. Learning English in a classroom is important, but putting your English knowledge into practice in real situations will improve your fluency in speaking English. If you do not know of any real life situation, create new ones for yourself by using the Internet to listen to the news, write English responses in forums, exchange emails in English with email pals, etc.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Vocabulary Terms Betty Smiths first novel,Ã A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, tells the coming-of-age story of Francie Nolan and her second-generation immigrant parents struggling to provide for their family. Its widely believed Smith herself was the basis for the character of Francie. Heres a vocabulary list from A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. Use these terms for reference, study, and discussion. Chapters I-VI: tenement: an apartment building, usually in a low-income area, that is without luxury amenities ragamuffin: a child whose appearance is unkempt and uncivilized cambric: a finely woven white linen interminable: long and dull with little sign of ending (or terminating) premonition: a warning or feeling about something that will happen in the future (usually negative) vestibule: a reception area or foyer, often in a school or church Chapters VII-XIV: fetching: attractive or pretty, beguiling peculiar: unusual or suprising, out of the ordinary bucolic: of or in the countryside, literally a shepherd or cowhand sprig small shoot or twig of a plant, usually decorative or garnish filigree: a delicate ornamentation or detail usually gold or silver, on jewelry banshee: from Irish folklore,Ã a female spirit whose high-pitched wailing signals an imminent death (on the) dole: unemployed and receiving benefits from the government. Chapters XV-XXIII: prodigious: impressively large, awesome languorous: without energy or liveliness, sluggish gallantlyÃ do something in a brave or heroic way dubious: having doubt or uncertainty, skeptical horde: a large unruly crowd saunterÃ to walk at a leisurely pace relegate: to demote or assign to a lower category Chapters XXIV-XXIX: gratis: free, without cost contempt:Ã disrespectful dislike conjecture: opinion based on incomplete information, speculation surreptitious: secretive, sneaky vivacious: animated, lively, happy-go-lucky thwarted: prevented from accomplishing something, disappointed sodden: drenched, thoroughly soaked Chapters XXX-XXXVII:Ã lulled: calmed, settled down putrid: decaying with a foul odorÃ debonair: sophisticated, charming lament: to mourn, or feel sad about a loss fastidious: having exacting attention to detail Chapters XXXIII-XLII: contrite: apologetic, feeling sincere regret for a misdeed contorted: twisted or misshapen infinitesimal: so small as to be irrelevant or unmeasurable Chapters XLIII-XLVI:Ã contemptuously: disrespectfully, disdainfully poignant: creating or evoking a feeling of sadness or empathy genuflect: to kneel and show deference or reverence especially in a house of worship vestment: garment worn by a member of clergy or religious order Chapters XLVII-LIII: vaudeville: variety show with comedic and slapstick performances rhetorically: speaking in a theoretical or speculative manner, not literally mollify: to pacify or appease matriculate: to enroll and pass through a school or course of study munitions: collection of weapons Chapters LV-LVI: prohibition: forbidding, or, period in American history when alcohol was illegal. jauntily: cheerful and arrogant, lively sachet: small perfumed bag This vocabulary list is just one part of our study guide on A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. Please see the links below for other helpful resources: Review: A Tree Grows in BrooklynQuotes from A Tree Grows in Brooklyn
Saturday, November 2, 2019
The psychological contract does not exist in the minds of employers in mature states and mature organisations. What is key is the legal contract. The psycholog - Essay Example ent the employer may promise to offer something to the employee or at the time of appraising an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance the employer could declare a reward for his satisfactory performance. Mutual obligations sometimes act as promises and sometimes as expectations. However, the employee is required to have trust in such promises or expectations as part of the relationship with the employer (The psychological contract, 2007). There is a vast difference between a legal contract and a psychological contract with regard to employment. Legal contracts offer a limited set of expectations and imperfect identification of the relationship involved in the employment. With the exception of refusing to accept such terms and conditions, the employee can do anything about the relationship mentioned in legal contracts. The courts and employment tribunals examine the nature and content of the legal contract of employment. These enforcing bodies interpret the nature of employment on the basis of the legal contract (The psychological contract, 2007). A psychological contract examines the practicality and reality of the work place environment as perceived by the employer and the employees. It has greater effect than a legal contract in determining the activities of the employees and the management. Under a psychological contract, the employees have a clear idea of their duties and the necessity to discuss them by adopting the process of collective bargaining. It also explains to them their expectations from the employer (The psychological contract, 2007). A psychological contract does not require to be enforced strictly. The courts examine the underlying relationship between employer and employee while interpreting the common law principles with regard to mutual trust and confidence. Researchers claim that there would be a negative effect on job satisfaction and a deterioration of employee commitment towards their job, if the management fails to fulfill its promises to its