Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo Essay - 2527 Words

Alfred Hitchcock is arguably the greatest director of all time. Many of his films are considered standards of American cinema and inspired many of today’s directors. Even though Hitchcock is known as timeless director, he had an understanding of philosophy that was beyond his time. Hitchcock had a brilliant perception as to how the mind works and human reaction. Hitchcock’s understanding of philosophy can be seen in his film Vertigo and illustrates how many theories can be debilitating in everyday life. Into the Mind of Freud through the Mind of Hitchcock One of the philosophies that Hitchcock tackles is that of Sigmund Freud. Freud is known for psychoanalysis and his interpretation of dreams. Specifically, Freud’s theories can be seen†¦show more content†¦Though he is tricked, he believes that due to his vertigo he lets her die which could represent how he was hesitant to commit to her. Moreover, it is Scottie’s fear of heights that makes him lose the women that he loves. Through this theory, along with Freud’s, Hitchcock better shows the fear of commitment in men. This shows a deeper understanding than that of many, during this era as when the movie was filmed (1958) and the nuclear family was evident. Men and women were supposed to be married and not have any feelings for anyone outside their marriage. Freud has also touched upon the melancholy of losing a loved one. Freud’s theory is that loss and melancholy is what can lead to madness. This trait is also seen in Scottie’s reaction to the believed death of Madeleine. Scottie goes mad and has to be institutionalized. When he is released he finds the Madeleine â€Å"look alike† in Judy and develops a deep obsession. Heather Holf who wrote Hitchcock’s Vertigo and the Tragic Sublime says: Judy is fetishised into Madeleine as the lost object and, in the process, she is made the object of inevitable disappointment. Scotty can never be satisfied with the substitutive object and Judy must become the object of his revulsion. Scottie by trying to transform Judy into another person shows how powerful the melancholy of loss can be on the psyche of some. Hitchcock shows a beautiful understanding of this particular madness in Scottie.Show MoreRelatedThe Master Of Suspense And Alfred Hitchcock1389 Words   |  6 Pagesall have two attributes in common; the tactful use of suspense and Alfred Hitchcock. Each person in the list above has, at one point, named Alfred Hitchcock as an influence for their works (IMDb). Hitchcock has been known as, â€Å"the master of suspense,† throughout his career and it shows, not only in the movies that he directed personally, but in the movies of the other directors and producers who aspire to compare to him. Hitchcock’s auteur, or reoccurring themes within movies that can be traced backRead MoreAlfred Hitchcock s Psychological Pressure, Mystery, And Wit1430 Words   |  6 PagesAlfred Hitchcock is known as one of the greatest directors in the history of cinema. H itchcock directed over fifty films, many of which remain popular to this day, including his stunning works Vertigo, North by Northwest, The Man Who Knew Too Much, and Psycho. Hitchcock’s use of suspense, psychological pressure, mystery, and wit intrigued the audiences of his day as well as audiences of the 21st century. These elements of Hitchcock’s films have also inspired the genre of horror films that many knowRead MoreComparative Analysis Of Vertigo, North By Northwest And Notorious By Alfred Hitchcock1348 Words   |  6 PagesComparative Analysis of Vertigo, North by Northwest and Notorious by Alfred Hitchcock The British master of suspense, Alfred Hitchcock, made the cinematographic history by the unique auteur approach. His own vision of the story, uncommon manner of shooting, and challenging ideas formed his style and made him recognizable. The genius of the 50’s and 60’s, he provided the rich legacy for the future generations and set the pace for the directors all over the world. This paper is going to trace theRead MoreEssay on Male Gaze in Vertigo1092 Words   |  5 PagesSection I Images of Women in Film Dr. Judith Lancioni 07, February 2012 Male Gaze in Vertigo Several film theorists have used a variety of tactics and view points to analyze feature films since their inception. One of the most prominent theorists of those that analyze films from a feminist perspective is Laura Mulvey. Mulvey is famous for her essay â€Å"Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,† which presents an array of theories involving the treatment of women in films. Arguably the mostRead MoreAlfred Hitchcock Comparison Paper1511 Words   |  7 Pagesdecided to compare two Hitchcock films. Ever since I can remember, I have seen Alfred Hitchcock films; Psycho, The Birds, North by Northwest, I enjoy his work because I like the suspense, and visual effects that he was able to accomplish. Out of all of his films, I believe that my favorite Hitchcock films would have to be Rear Window (1954) and Vertigo (1958), because I think that the two incorporate everything that is â€Å"Alfred Hitchcock†. Hitchcock films are known for being mysterious, cynical, as w ellRead MoreVertigo - Hitchcock Defying Genres1337 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Vertigo – Hitchcock Defying Genre â€Å"†¦alternatively, a film can revise or reject the conventions associated with its genre† - Bordwell Based on the French novel D’Entre les Morts by Pierre Boileau and Thomas Narcejac, Vertigo is arguably one of Alfred Hitchcock’s masterpieces and the â€Å"strangest, yet most hauntingly beautiful film he had ever made† (Adair, 2002). At the time, its far-fetched plot drew a mixed response from critics – Time magazine called the movie a â€Å"Hitchcock and bull story† –Read MoreFilm Review : Hitchcock s Vertigo1340 Words   |  6 PagesThe 1958 Alfred Hitchcock movie Vertigo has a drastic change in the psyche of the main character John â€Å"Scottie† Ferguson. In this movie you can see interesting changes in color throughout. The color ties into the psyche of the characters, creating a mentally stimulating motion picture. The color changes that give way to more psychologically in depth readings of the film have caused the picture to sustain its top movie position over the decades. In the beginning of the romantic thriller, Scottie has Read MoreHitchcock : The Master Of Suspense2362 Words   |  10 Pageswith a knife. This king is the Master of Suspense himself, Alfred Hitchcock. Even though Hitchcock is known as a timeless director, he had an understanding of philosophy that was beyond his time. He is known for his horror movies which spanned from the 1930s to the 1980s. Hitchcock produced a total number of 66 films in his lifetime. Some films include The Man Who Knew Too Much, Vertigo, Psycho, and The Birds, just to name a few (â€Å"Vertigo (1958)†). Hitchcock had a brilliant perception as to how theRead More Film Autuerism Essay1302 Words   |  6 Pagesmade by a certain director. In auteur films, the director is many times what brings an audience to the theater, instead of the actors or storyline. I am going to take a look at three of the most noted auteurs: Frederico Fellini, Satyajit Ray, and Alfred Hitchcock. I watched five of Frederico Fellini’s films: La Dolce Vita, 8-1/2, Juliet of the Spirits, La Strada, and City of Women. In all of these films, I noticed Fellini’s enormous use of imagery, which of course he is most noted for. HoweverRead MoreAnalytical Essay on the Score of Psycho872 Words   |  4 Pages music was added without his (or Welles) consent when the film was mutilated by a panic-stricken studio. Herrmann was a prolific film composer, producing his most memorable work for Alfred Hitchcock, for whom he wrote nine scores. He ignored the directors instructions - like Hitchcocks suggestion that Psycho (1960) have a jazz score and no music in the shower scene). He ended his partnership with Hitchcock after the latter rejected his score for Torn Curtain (1966) on

Monday, December 16, 2019

Evolution of the Immune System Free Essays

John Frelinger Dr. Travis Organic Evolution 30 April 2012 Evolution of the Immune System Animals are constantly bombarded by an immensely varied array of disease causing pathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and other parasites. The number of microbes living in the human body outnumber the actual human cells by a factor of 10, and for every single species of animal and plant on Earth, there are viruses that infect them. We will write a custom essay sample on Evolution of the Immune System or any similar topic only for you Order Now With the unrelenting threat of disease-causing pathogens all around us, and even within us, how can the constantly vulnerable organisms defend themselves? Evolution has provided an answer to this problem—the immune system. The immune system is a vastly complex orchestra of cells working together to help eliminate potentially harmful pathogens from the body. Some form of host defense is found in every multicellular organism, however there are myriad variations in the immune systems of different organisms. Vertebrates have evolved an acquired immune response, in which a specific immune system is activated to clear an infection that is initially controlled by a non-specific (innate) immune response. This highly adaptable system is important to the survival of vertebrate species. Surprisingly, however, 90% of animals (invertebrates) do not have this kind of response. Despite lacking a seemingly critical adaptation, invertebrates continue to survive and reproduce. Why does it appear necessary for vertebrates to have an acquired response in order to survive, but the more numerous invertebrate species do not? Research indicates that there is an evolutionary lineage of the immune system that stems from the split of invertebrates and vertebrates. Innate immunity, which is found in all animals, is assumed to be at the beginning of this evolutionary tree. After the diversification of species (vertebrates branching from invertebrates), mechanisms of immunity also diverged. In this paper I will first discuss the function of the innate immune system because of its older evolutionary history, followed by the adaptive immune response that evolved later in vertebrate lineages. I will then conclude by placing the development of the innate and adaptive immune system in an evolutionary context. Innate immunity is the first line of defense for an organism and is made up of elements that protect the organism from pathogens. Anatomical aspects such as skin act as an impermeable barrier to infectious pathogens. Chemical and biological factors, including anti-microbial peptides like defensins, are also used to inhibit bacterial growth and prevent colonization. Another immunological factor of the innate immune system are phagocytic cells (macrophages), which are cells that engulf and eliminate foreign pathogens. These cells operate using a variety of different and generalized receptors that recognize a broad range of molecular patterns expressed by pathogens that initiate phagocytosis. One such family of receptors, known as Toll-like Receptors, recognizes common pathogen elements such as bacterial wall components or viral DNA sequences. This component is found in virtually every multicellular organism, ranging from sponges to humans (Muller and Muller 2003). Plants also express proteins that are very similar to toll-like receptors, indicating that this aspect of the innate immune system predates the divergence of plants and animals. The innate immune system is so valuable to an organism’s survival because it is always present and in many instances can prevent pathogen entry or replication. This, in turn, prevents a harmful infection from ever occurring inside the host. Although invertebrates do not have the acquired immune response, recent research has shown that their innate response is more complex than previously thought. Insects can activate their immune systems to remain in a higher state in order to prepare for a pathogen invasion. During bedbug mating, females are frequently injured in the process because males will stab a female to inject his sperm, infecting her with bacteria and exposing her to other potential infections. In response, females have evolved ways to enhance their immune system prior to mating in anticipation of pathogen invasion (Morrow and Arnqvist 2003). Bumblebees are capable of maintaining a heightened immune system in response to a prior pathogen invasion to aid in the prevention of future infections. Immunity such as this has been shown to pass down vertically to offspring, therefore increasing their fitness (Tyler et al. 006). Slugs have also evolved an interesting alternative response in the form of increased mutation rates of certain immune cell receptors, which allows their immune system to adapt to many foreign elements (Litman and Cooper 2007). While it is inherently different from the acquired immune response, this sensitive management of immune function was previously thought to be reserved as a characteristic of vertebrates and the adaptive immune response. As vertebrates began to diverge and evolve from invertebrates, so too did the immune system. The new adaptive branch of the immune system originally conferred a new selective advantage for vertebrates because of its specificity and immense flexibility in recognizing new pathogens. The clonal selection theory, in which each lymphocyte clonally expresses a specific antigen receptor, can help explain how the immune system can express an extremely wide range of potential receptors capable of recognizing new pathogens. Lymphocytes are undifferentiated cells that ultimately become B-cells (Bone Marrow) or T-cells (Thymus) depending on where they migrate. B-cells possess a uniquely structured immunoglobulin molecule (antibodies exposed on outer surface) that recognizes and binds to a specific molecular counterpart. When a foreign antigen is bound to the antibody, it stimulates the replication of that specific B-cell with the aid of Helper T-cells, which enhance B-cell maturation. This process results in the clonal expansion of cells that recognize the original antigen and subsequent production of antibodies that help in the eradication of the pathogen. An important point of this process is that the pathogens select which lymphocytes expand. It also results in memory B-cells and T-cells that constitute a persistent immune memory for a particular antigen. This expanded pool of memory cells is activated upon a second exposure to the same pathogen, resulting in a much more rapid immune response to clear infection. Other types of T-cells are also produced during this process. For example, cytotoxic T-cells target and kill virally infected cells, while suppressor or regulatory T-cells are activated when the infectious pathogens are eliminated and signal the immune system to subside. Cells such as these also experience selective pressures–ones that react to self-tissue (and harm the host) would be selected against, while those that recognize pathogens would survive and replicate. The clonal selection theory addresses many aspects of vertebrate immunity, however, it does not explain all of the mysteries behind the variety of antibody generation. The sheer number of antibodies that can be produced and the finding that the acquired immune response can generate antibodies to manmade molecules that are not present in nature led scientists to explore how such diversity is generated. Research done by Susumu Tonegawa in the 1970’s indicated that B-cells have the ability to produce a huge number of antibodies due to a gene rearrangement process. B cells originally have many sets of gene segments (Variable, Diverse, and Joining) and over the course of its maturation reduce these segments to one of each type for the production of the antibody heavy chain. A similar process of gene rearrangement is involved for the production of the antibody light chain. The light chain and heavy chain proteins then assemble to form the complete antibody molecule that can specifically bind to an antigen. Two genes that are critical for this process to work are RAG1 and RAG2. These genes are known as recombination-activating genes and distinguish the vertebrate immune system from other lineages. These genes are critical to the process because they act as the excision and joining molecules that cut and knit back together the individual VDJ segments that make up the antibody. This results in the huge potential of diverse antibodies that can be produced—hundreds of millions of possible antibody types generated from a much smaller number of gene segments that can react with virtually any antigen. This sophisticated process may have originally been introduced by a mobile genetic element known as transposons. These transposable elements have the ability to excise themselves from one DNA sequence and incorporate themselves into another, very similar to the RAG1 and RAG2 gene functions. After the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates, a viral infection of the jawed lineage’s gametes may have introduced a transposon into their genome. (Thompson 1995). This may have provided the raw materials necessary to facilitate the development of adaptive immunity. The acquired response appears to have evolved from a single lineage because all vertebrates (excluding jawless fish) retain this RAG-mediated gene rearrangement system. The specificity of this kind of response may have been selected for because of its ability to recognize a diverse number of pathogens, but also because it could conserve more energy resources compared to the generalized defense of the innate response. The adaptive immune response is structured in such a way that it can respond to an almost infinite number of pathogens, while utilizing a relatively limited number of genes. Figure 1 illustrates a potential phylogeny based on some immune system adaptations previously discussed. Figure 1 (Reproduced from Litman and Cooper 2007). Although the vertebrate immune system is extremely adaptable to many potential threats, it is far from perfect. Epidemics such as the Bubonic Plague or the 1918 influenza killed millions of people. Similarly, when the Spanish colonized the New World, they also introduced pathogens that were devastating to the indigenous people. One of the major limitations of the acquired immune response is that it takes a relatively long time to respond after the initial exposure in order to be effective. This time is required because the lymphocytes must clonally expand before a pathogen can be eliminated. For example, in the case of the Native Americans, when they were exposed to the new pathogens, the infections spread to a portion of the population that was large enough to leave them unable to forage for food or to tend to the sick. As a result, it nearly wiped out the entire civilization. This limitation is significant as illustrated by these and many other historical epidemics. These difficulties have led scientists to think more fully about the effectiveness of the vertebrate immune system. If the immune system has the potential to combat virtually any conceivable threat, why then can’t it always eliminate any potentially harmful pathogen? We also look to immune hypersensitivity and autoimmunity as potential drawbacks of the immune system, indicating further imperfections of the adaptation. When the immune system mistakenly targets self-tissue, it results in serious consequences for the organism. Concepts in evolutionary biology might help address these issues. In this context the immune system does not have to be inherently perfect by design because only some individuals of a population need to survive and reproduce for that lineage to continue. The variation introduced by the immune system generates the diversity necessary for a population to adapt to changing environmental pressures. As others have suggested, a zebra doesn’t have to outrun the lion, just the slowest member of the herd (Hedrick 2004). The immune system is subjected to the same constraints as other characteristics in regards to natural selection. In this case even if a trait is not optimal, but helps the organism survive and reproduce, it will be selected for, regardless of any deleterious effects experienced post-reproduction. Many, but not all immunologists, believe the development of the adaptive immune system with gene rearrangement was a critical advance. It has been proposed that the development of the adaptive immune system was the â€Å"Big Bang† for the evolution of immune system (Travis 2009). This development might have also enabled the rapid expansion of vertebrates. Moreover, the idea that the adaptive immune system can generate receptors for molecules that are not yet present, makes it extremely flexible and has been called â€Å"forward thinking† (Travis 2009). Thus, while the immune system does not anticipate every change in organisms it is ready for them by constructing a large repertoire of antigen specific receptors, which confers a big selective advantage. Others have suggested the adaptive immune system conserves resources, and thus is better than the innate system. In contrast, as noted earlier, invertebrates lack a fully functional adaptive immune system and are very successful. Moreover, others have argued that even if the immune system was an advantage, it was only temporary and short lived (Hedrick 2004). Another relevant issue deals with the concept of parasite and host co-evolution. This constant struggle is exemplified by a quote from Lewis Carroll’s â€Å"Through the Looking Glass†, â€Å"it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place†. This concept, originally introduced by Leigh Van Valen, has been termed the Red Queen hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, an improvement in fitness for one species will lead to a selective advantage for that species. However, since species are often coevolving with one another, improvement in one species implies that it gains a competitive advantage over the other species, and thus has the potential to outcompete for shared resources. This means that fitness increase in one evolutionary system will tend to lead to fitness decrease in another system. The only way that a competing species can maintain its relative fitness is to improve on its own design. Although this theory was used to help explain the extinction of species and the evolution of sexual reproduction, it has been applied to many aspects of predator prey relationships including the development of the immune system. Because animals are constantly attacked by fast-adapting parasites, the host immune system cannot possibly gain an advantage over them. The evolution of the immune system is caused by the small advantages conferred as a result of variation in the recognition of pathogens. As suggested by Steven Hedrick, â€Å"by selecting for more elusive parasites, the immune system is ultimately the cause of its own necessity† (Hedrick 2004). Thus paradoxically, the immune system, since it places a strong selective pressure on pathogens and parasites, ultimately has become essential for vertebrates to survive. By placing selective pressure on parasites that can evolve much more rapidly than animals (due to their higher reproductive/mutation rate), it results in parasites that are increasingly more effective at infecting hosts of that species. In terms of the immune system, one strategy that parasites have developed is a means of altering their own antigens to become unrecognizable. In this way they escape the adaptive immune system by altering their structure. For example, trypanosomes can switch the major target antigen for antibodies, which they use as a strategy to extend the amount of time they reside in the host. This results in a more contagious host that will increase the spread of pathogens to new hosts (Stockdale et al. 2008). Similarly, because the HIV polymerase is very error prone with no proof reading mechanism, many mutations arise in the HIV proteins during its infection. While the adaptive immune system can make neutralizing antibodies, new variants arise that can no longer be recognized by the antibodies. These new variants have a selective advantage and escape, and thus the adaptive immune system  is always lagging behind. In terms of the host immune response, there is also an extremely high level  of polymorphism of major histocompatibility genes, which enable the population to respond to a wider array of antigens using T-cells. The benefit of this heterozygosity is that it allows the individual to respond to a wider variety of antigens. Moreover this diversity helps ensure that even though some individuals may perish, the particular pathogen will not be able to eliminate the entire population. Some infectious agents have even taken it a step further and evolved ways to utilize the host immune system to increase their own fitness. For example, infections that result in pus filled cysts can be used to carry parasitic progeny and spread to new hosts when they burst. Even though this may help the host clear an infection, the pathogen can use this to increase its own fitness and infect more individuals. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) utilizes the host immune system by initially infecting macrophages, and subsequently T-cells, which the virus uses as a reservoir for reproduction and as a means to spread to many different tissues in the body (Orenstein 2001). It also serves the virus to target immune cells for infection because crippling the host immune response akes it easier for the virus to spread throughout the body and eventually to new hosts (due to the higher viral load). In this light, it is possible that invertebrates did not evolve the adaptive immune response because they may have never needed it. By lacking the ability to develop a â€Å"memory† for a particular pathogen, those pathogens did not evolve anti-immune mechanisms to counter the host immune response. An immune memory could lead to more devious pathogens and resu lt in a more harmful infection in the future. This could have been a better strategy for invertebrates as it may have prevented the co-evolution of more virulent pathogens (Hedrick 2004). The immune system has a long evolutionary history in multicellular organisms. The innate immune system is a critical adaptation that helped these organisms survive the onslaught of parasites and pathogens. Vertebrates possess an adaptive immune response that allowed for the recognition of an almost infinite number of pathogenic antigens, however, it appears to have become a one-way road with the coevolution of pathogens. Once this adaptive system appeared in the vertebrate lineage, there was no going back. Because of the immense flexibility of the adaptive immune response, it places huge selective pressures on pathogens to constantly evolve new mechanisms of infecting hosts. Thus in the context of evolution, even with the incredible versatility of the adaptive immune system, it is likely there can not be an ultimate solution to infection by parasites only a new, perhaps unstable, equilibrium. Works Cited Hedrick, S. (2004). The Acquired Immune System: A Vantage from Beneath. Immunity 21, 607-615. Litman, G. and Cooper, M. (2007). Why Study the Evolution of Immunity? Nature Immunology 8, 547-548. Morrow, E. H. , and Arnqvist, G. (2003). Costly traumatic insemination and a female counter-adaptation in bed bugs. Proceedings of the Royal SocietyB: Biological Sciences. 270: 2377–2381 Muller, W. and Muller, I. (2003). Origin of the Metazoan Immune System: Identification of the Molecules and Their Functions in Sponge. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43, 281-292. Orenstein, J. (2001). The Macrophage in HIV Infection. Immunobiol. 204, 598- 602. Stockdale, C. , Swiderski, M. , Barry D. , and Richard McCulloch (2008). Antigenic Variation in Trypanosoma brucei: Joining the DOTs. PLoS Biol 6. Thompson, C. B. (1995). New insights into V(D)J recombination and its role in the evolution of the immune system. Immunity 3, 531–539. Travis, John. (2009). â€Å"On the Origin of the Immune System†. Sciencemag Vol. 329. Tyler, E. , Adams, S. , and Mallon, E. (2006), An Immune Response in the Bumblebee,Bombus terrestris leads to increased food consumption. BMC Physiology 6. How to cite Evolution of the Immune System, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Case Study of Amazon In-Free-Samples for Students-Myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Case Study of Amazon In. Answer: Introduction: The main of this report is to analyze the situation for understanding the key issues. In this report strength and weakness is analyzed by performing SWOT and VIRO analysis. In this, the case the Amazon is selected for performing the analysis. The selected company is the worlds largest online retailer. The success of this company has encouraged others retailers that includes physical, brick and mortar retailers to get in to the online presence (Peppard Ward, 2016). The online retailer Amazon is compared to the Wal-Mart for its large presence in different countries and the aggressive strategy of pricing followed by them. However, the recent development and steep competition requires amazon has to rethink its business model of operating at close to zero margins. In addition to this, the company has not made sufficient profit as a result it is an impediment to the growth of the company Issues The most primary issue relating to the business strategy of Amazon are stated below: Amazon offers free shipping due to which the company is losing its profit margin in products of small amounts. The suggestion and recommendation of the market researchers and analysts have play a significant role in the decrease in profits. The product category range of amazon is very small. Swot Anaysis In the part below the SWOT Analysis regarding the business strategy of amazon has been discussed precisely. The SWOT analysis refer to the STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS that a business is exposed to. Every aspects of SWOT analysis is discussed briefly. Strengths: The amazon is the largest online retailer it focuses mainly on the three prolonged strategies that are cost-leadership, differentiation and focus. By following the strategies the company thrives its gains from the course of its action and help its shareholders originates the values of the items from the company (Hill et al., 2014). The company is ahead of its competitors as it is easy to scale up and use the e-Commerce platform. The company is well ahead of its competitors because it mainly derives its competitive advantages from the leveraging IT. The company has superior logistics and distributor systems helps. This is helpful for the company to fulfil the need of the customers. It is one of the main reason for deriving competitive advantage from the competitors. Well established Amazon partner program for affiliates. Weaknesses: Free shipping being the part of amazon offers has risk of making losses and hence might not able to optimize on costs because of its strategy. The company has expanded very rapidly as a result the focus on the core competencies of the company of retailing books online has declined.As this can be a clever strategy from the perceptive of risk diversification (FrynasMellahi, 2015).However, it can be said that asamazon is moving away from its core competence it has to be conscious of preserving its strategic advantage. The main weakness of amazon is its business model of zero margin. This model has resulted in significant decline in the revenue of the company as the huge amount of revenues that has not been translated into profits that the company could utilize. Amazon sales depends upon the product category that varies in between a small range. Several provider for same product can arise aprice battle. Opportunities: As amazon facilitates the payment in online basis in a secured and trusted environment. This helps the business to to scale up by considering the concerns over online shopping as for the customers security and privacy are the primary concern.In addition to this, it also improves the margin of the company because it allows the company to take the advantage of using its own payment gateways (Hubbard et al., 2014). Amazon hasa great facility to capitalize its own manufactured product and by selling them rather than forwarding the sites of the third party product. As amazon increases its portfolios of diversified products than its competitors. This gives the company a position of strength and helps it to earn higher revenues. As amazon opens more sites in the emerging markets all around the globe that would certainly increase competition in the online retailing markets (Jenkins Williamson, 2015). Threats: As identity threats and hacking leads the consumers data exposed so it is a concerns for amazon to maintain its privacy. As its follows aggressive pricing strategies the company faces lawsuit from competitors in the retailing industryandpublishers. The company is focused in cost leaderships and has significantly reduced profit this is upset the competitors (Percy 2016). Thecompany from the local retailers that are more agile and nimble when compared to its strategy faces the significant competitions. VRIO Analysis: The VRIO framework acts a tool that utilize internally by firms that analyzed their resources and capabilities that determine their competitive advantage implications that are temporary competitive advantages ,sustainable advantages, competitive disadvantages or competitive party (Madsen Walker, 2015). There are four components of measures that contributes to the analysis are. Values, rare, imitability, exploitations. Values are generally defined as the resources or the capability valuable in enabling the firms ability to leverage opportunity that can be defend against threats. Rare shows that how easily acquired and readily available is the resources and capabilities to the industry and other firms. Imitability refers to the substitution that could be easily replaceable for the resources or capability. Exploitation refers as firms that are properly utilize the resources or the capability to its most ideal state or maximize its potential or optimizes its potential. Competitive disadvantages: The Amazons does not fails in its business as shown by VRIO shows. Most of their resources and different goods and products that were launched fetched them with profits and successes. Few items failed for amazon was Fire Smartphone. However, amazons generally astonished its customers with its innovations and creativity. As the failure will be labeled as competitive disadvantages for the business due to waste of money, efforts to produce an effective items that could not be valuable, rare or imitable. Competitive party: The Competitive party defines as the items that are valuable but are not rare and can be easily substituted with other goods. Amazon underestimate these items but these items itself generates revenues streams. No revenue is not acceptable compared to without revenues as in the long term it is not justifiable (Shin et al., 2014). As many retailers uses common features that amazon uses like Amazon Supply. The Amazons New York better than no revenues, even to the long term it is maintainable, video on demand, Brilliance Audio, European Warehouse etc. though these features are initiated by other competitors but if amazon were to suddenly loose these competencies then in term of short term, the business would have suffered significantly. Temporary advantage: The early acceptance and achievements of the retailers has been the crucial strength for Amazon. Moreover, into the Amazons present business model, this would quickly be incorporated. These possessions and competencies can be regarded as advantages of temporary nature as it continues to flourish as mainstream. It is only a matter of time previously follows suit. Partnerships with the giants industry like Sotheybys grow their business through amazon that definitely has competitive advantage over its market benefits. Items such as instant video, x-ray for the purpose of movies, its various acquirements of small retailers integrates with the large retailers through amazon, and it has advantages over it. Sustainable advantage: It is their innovation and those items that lead industry from where the most competitive advantages of Amazon Inc. comes from. Financial Analysis: Amazon Inc. is one of the leading online retailers in the US market. Since the last 10 years it can be observed from the past statistics and financial performances that the company has grown immensely (Parnell, 2013). The company has not only diversified its marketing strategies but also expanded its customer base through introduction of a huge variety of range of various categories of product. From the statement of financial analysis it can be observed that the total revenue have increased over the year. In 2006, the total revenue was $10,711 Million that increased to $107,006 Million in 2015. This also resulted in the significant increasing gross profits during the period. Gross profit for the year 2015 stands at $35,355 Million. Moreover it was also observed that the total equity have also increased over the years for the company. Referring to the stock price chart of Amazon Inc. it can be observed that since its inception, the stock price of the company has increased significantly over the year till 2015. But unfortunately in the year 2016 there is a clear sign of declination in the price of stocks. This is a crucial factor to be considered while assessing the financial health of the company and must be rectified immediately. Conclusion: From the above case study of Amazon Inc., it can be concluded that it is one of the leading online retailer not only in the US market but also internationally. The major strengths of Amazon being its three pronged strategic thrust. Moreover, through its huge range of product categories and consumer friendly policies it was able to attract a large pool of customers and grew up quite significantly over the year. From the financial statement it was observed that until 2015 the company was able to make substantial profit and it share price were also on a increasing trend. However, since the year 2016 there seems to be some serious issue in the internal management of the company that had a bad impact over its share price. Since 2016, the stock price of Amazon tends to decline which is needed to be investigated and corrective actions are required to be taken with immediate effect. References Frynas, J. G., Mellahi, K. (2015).Global strategic management. Oxford University Press, USA. Hill, C. W., Jones, G. R., Schilling, M. A. (2014).Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Hubbard, G., Rice, J., Galvin, P. (2014).Strategic management. Pearson Australia. Jenkins, W., Williamson, D. (2015).Strategic management and business analysis. Routledge. Kaynak, E., Mockler, R., Dologite, D. G. (2014).Multinational strategic management: an integrative entrepreneurial context-specific process. Routledge. Madsen, T. L., Walker, G. (2015).Modern competitive strategy. McGraw Hill. Parnell, J. A. (2013).Strategic management. Sage. Peppard, J., Ward, J. (2016).The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy. John Wiley Sons. Percy, L. (2016).Strategic advertising management. Oxford University Press. Shin, J., Jo, M., Lee, J., Lee, D. (2014). Strategic management of cloud computing services: Focusing on consumer adoption behavior.IEEE transactions on engineering management,61(3), 419-427.