Saturday, May 23, 2020
Introduction Today, more than 50 economies operate ECAs to support national exports of industrial goods and technology. A large portion of export credit transactions are related to large scale energy projects such as power plants, hydropower dams and pipeline infrastructures, that may take several years to develop and are often associated with countries with high political risk. ECAs provide financial supports to national exporters in forms of export insurance, risk guarantees and direct loans so exporters can accept deferred payments from buyers under condition of high uncertainty. Such financing instrument has gained its strategic importance as more economies view exports as a vital national objective and lead to increase in number of established ECAs and volumes of export credit transactions. During the 1990s, the annual volume of export credit provided by Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries averaged roughly $80-100 billion per annum (Maurer and Nakhood, 2003). Since then, volumes have grown, reaching a record of $514 billion in 2010 (Berne Union 2011). As ECAs gained presence in international financial market, its influence beyond their impact on international trade flows were acknowledged among stakeholders. One of notable concerns was impact on environment. Environmental groups have criticized ECAs for being involved in controversial large scale projects that have negative impacts on environment, such as large dams that submergeShow MoreRelatedExport Promotion Strategy vs. Import Substitution Strategy1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Introduction It was the export promotion (EP) strategy that accounted for East Asians states success of economic development. Meanwhile, many other developing countries such as Latin America countries had committed to an alternative strategy, import substitution (IS). The IS strategy yielded disappointing results: most of these countries did not succeed in either industrialization or economic growth while export-oriented industrializations (EOIs) sustained fast economic development. DataRead MoreBalance of Payment1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe debit side. Definition: Ã¢â¬Å"Balance of payment is a systematic record of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s total payments to foreign countries, including the price of imports, the outflow of capital and gold, and the total receipts from abroad, including the price of exports and the inflow of capital and gold.Ã¢â¬ According to Pas Taylor: Ã¢â¬Å"Balance of payment refers to the difference between the total payments out of a country during a given period of time. These payments are of visible and invisible items.Ã¢â¬ SituationRead MoreJapan s Post War Economic Miracle1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen Japan be defeated in World War II, Japanese economy was nearly collapsed. Their industrial production was sharply declined, only reached 10% of the 1934-6 level in 1945 (Kunio 1994). In 1945, Japan has signed an official document of surrender in the Pacific War and occupied by the United States from 1945-1952. In the occupation period, the U.S. was helped Japan to recover their economy from a complete shambles situation. Thus, the Japanese economy was gradually recovered to the pre-war levelRead MoreGreen Barrier to Chinas Export1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction As the world economy moves towards globalization, China has become more open to trade with other countries. Its international trade volume had risen from US$20.6 in 1978 to US$1,422 billion in 2005 (Wang amp; Liu, 2007). Since ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s exports mainly focus on the labor intensive and resource intensive industries, this exports pattern causes a serious environmental problem in China. Green barriers become a kind of emerging non-tariff barrier which is used for the developed countriesRead MoreJapans Postwar Economic Success and the Liberal Democratic Party1353 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Introduction Japans postwar economic success has been variously attributed to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and to the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) of Japan. One line of thinking has it that the industrial policies outlined and supported by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry articulated the direction of industrial development and acted as a governor on the pace of that development. Against this background of MITI facilitation and regulation of pro-growthRead MoreChina Is A Developing Country968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinvestors from the country, however, besides the drawback mentioned above, there are many benefits to companies creating production facilities in China rather than export products from US to China. One of the biggest benefits to the US is the location. It will be cheaper for a US company to create a production facility in China than to export because of the distance in travel. Since China is a part of the WTO there are easier entries to barriers to US firms seeking to open production facilities inRead MoreThe Nehru Mahalanobis Plan ( 1950-1980 )1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof this plan included, achieving a high GDP growth rate, high public savings and national self-reliance. (fa) The government used a variety of instruments comprising industrial licensing, strict import controls, subsidization of exports, administered prices and other regulatory controls designed to drive the economy towards industrial development. However, extensive regulation and protectionism which formed the base of this approach inhibited this plan from meeting the policy objectives it had setRead MoreBossini944 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages7.(1) Why do you think China is now a favored location for so much high-technology manufacturing activity? For the Factor Endowments under PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s diamond, China maintains a huge floating supply of labor. As Joyce mentions before, there are 145 million migrant workers with non-technical production move to China in 2009, the foreign firms can lower the labor wage because of the non-technical workers. In China, there are also establish a lot of infrastructure, in order to help the development ofRead MoreGrowth in International Trade Markets795 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthat the answer to developing nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ international trade issues is untrammeled or open market activity as opposed to government intervention by developed nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ governments. This begs the question as to what extent the governments of developed nations are or should be responsible for supporting developing countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ growth in international trading markets. Often the protectionist actions of developed nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ governments to enhance their own international trading activities are the very h indrancesRead MoreQuestions On Granger Causality Test Table 31632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages5.1.5 RESULT FOR GRANGER CAUSALITY TEST Table 3: Pairwise Granger Causality Tests Date: 12/31/16 Time: 03:14 Sample: 1980 2014 Lags: 9 Null Hypothesis: Obs F-Statistic Probabiliy EXPORTS does not Granger Cause RGDP 26 11.0158 0.00228 RGDP does not Granger Cause EXPORTS 1.96909 0.19193 EMPL does not Granger Cause RGDP 26 9.44839 0.00365 RGDP does not Granger Cause EMPL 5.54812 0.01712 IMPORTS does not Granger Cause RGDP 26 0.95566 0.53661 RGDP does not Granger Cause
Monday, May 18, 2020
Si no se siente cÃ ³modo hablando en inglÃ ©s y tiene que realizar alguna gestiÃ ³n migratoria en ese idioma o presentarse a una entrevista o vista no se preocupe, ya que existen soluciones sencillas segÃ ºn el caso. Este artÃ culo trata de cÃ ³mo resolver el problema del poco conocimiento de inglÃ ©s que puede surgir enÃ cuatro situaciones: traducciÃ ³n de documentos al inglÃ ©scitaciÃ ³n ante el Servicio de InmigraciÃ ³n y CiudadanÃ a (USCIS, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s)citaciÃ ³n para una Corte migratoriay cita para entrevista en un consulado o Embajada de los Estados Unidos en otro paÃ s. CÃ ³mo traducir un documento al inglÃ ©s para el USCIS o un consulado Excepto en los casos muy concretos en los que se pide una traducciÃ ³n realizada por un traductor jurado y/o notarizada es suficiente una traducciÃ ³n certificada. Ã Esto quiere decir que es buena una realizada por cualquier persona que habla y escribe con fluidez el inglÃ ©s y el idioma del que traduce, generalmente el espaÃ ±ol. Este es un modelo de carta que se puede seguir para certificar dicha traducciÃ ³n. Esto es importante porque puede facilitar importante ahorro de dinero. Cita en una oficina del USCIS cuando no se habla bien inglÃ ©s Son muchos los ejemplos en los que el USICS puede citar para una entrevista. Como por ejemplo: Residencia permanente definitiva o condicional, en este caso por razÃ ³n de matrimonio.Entrevista por caso deÃ AsiloExamen para adquirir la ciudadanÃ a americana por naturalizaciÃ ³n en los casos muy concretos en los que al solicitante se le permite rendir el examen en su idioma materno y no en inglÃ ©s, etc En estos casos, aunque puede que el oficial a cargo de un caso sea bilingÃ ¼e, eso no tiene que ser necesariamente asÃ . El USCIS no proporciona intÃ ©rpretes para traducir del espaÃ ±ol al inglÃ ©s y viceversa. Por esta razÃ ³n si se ha sido citado y no se siente cÃ ³modo hablando en inglÃ ©s, usted puede llevar a un intÃ ©rprete para que traduzca las preguntas y tambiÃ ©n sus respuestas. El USCIS permite realizar la labor de intÃ ©rprete para las entrevistas a: Un familiar o amigo del entrevistado siempre que tengaÃ un conocimiento alto en los dos idiomas.Un traductor profesional. Los hay incluso con la especialidad de asistir a ese tipo de entrevistas a los que, lÃ ³gicamente, hay que pagar por sus servicios profesionales. Lo mÃ ¡s conveniente es que el traductor sea un ciudadano americano o un residente permanente legal, y no un amigo que estÃ ¡ en Estados Unidos temporalmente con una visa de turista, por ejemplo. Ya que en estos casos es posible que el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n decida que no lo acepta como intÃ ©rprete. Asimismo, los inmigrantes indocumentados deben abstenerse de pisar voluntariamente un edificio federal, particularmente los de inmigraciÃ ³n, ya que pueden ser detenidos. Por lo tanto, no es conveniente que brinden sus servicios de traductor a un familiar o amigo. AdemÃ ¡s, Ã otro requisito es que la persona que ha de traducir del inglÃ ©s al espaÃ ±ol y viceversa tiene que tener como mÃ nimo los 18 aÃ ±os de edad cumplidos. Por Ã ºltimo, tener en cuenta que aunque no hay una regla definitiva sobre el asunto, lo cierto es que en los casos de entrevistas a matrimonios el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n puede no permitir que un esposo bilingÃ ¼e traduzca para el que no habla inglÃ ©s. La razÃ ³n es que harÃ a mÃ ¡s difÃ cil detectar si se trata de un matrimonio de conveniencia. Cuando se tiene una cita en una Corte de InmigraciÃ ³n En este caso, la Corte sÃ que brinda un servicio gratuito de intÃ ©rpretes. Es posible que la persona que va a realizar este servicio estÃ © presente en la sala o, muy probablemente, estÃ © en otra parte y la comunicaciÃ ³n se tenga que realizar por telÃ ©fono. Por el contrario, las cortes migratorias no facilitan la presencia de abogados de oficio para defender a los migrantes. Son estos los que deben procurarse uno o defenderse a sÃ mismos, quedando claro que las estadÃ sticas demuestran que hay una gran diferencia en resultados siendo mejores cuando los migrantes son representados por abogados. Cuando se estÃ ¡ detenido o arrestado por autoridades migratorias Es muy importante no firmar ningÃ ºn documento que no se entienda. Este es un derecho de todas las personas, incluidos los migrantes indocumentados. Si hay algo que no se entiende, solicitar un abogado.Ã Entrevista en consulados y embajadas No es necesario llevar traductor ni a las entrevistas para solicitar visas no inmigrante como a las de visas de inmigrante. La razÃ ³n es que todosÃ los consulados y Embajadas de los Estados Unidos cuentan con trabajadores bilingÃ ¼es. En resumen, la falta de conocimiento de inglÃ ©s se puede arreglar de las formas explicadas en este artÃ culo. Este artÃ culo es sÃ ³lo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal para ningÃ ºn caso concreto
Monday, May 11, 2020
The economic order/manufacture quantity (EOQ/EMQ) model developed by Harris (1913) is the earliest reported scientific treatment of inventory systems, where the sum of inventory costs, ordering/setup and holding costs, is minimized. Its simple mathematics and ease of calculation is perhaps what contributed to its popularity with practitioners and academicians (e.g., Fulbright, 1979; Osteryoung et al., 1986). The EOQ/EMQ model continues to be celebrated by many researchers (Andriolo et al., 2014; Drake and Marley, 2014; Glock et al., 2014; Bushuev et al. 2015). The modelÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity overshadows few critical voices (e.g., Selen and Woods, 1987; Woolsey, 1990; Weiss, 1990). Many derivatives of the EOQ/EMQ appeared over the years, of which just-in-time (JIT) is one of them (e.g., Andriolo et al., 2014). In contrast to the classical EOQ/EMQ model, just-in-time (JIT) produces a product when needed and delivers it when wanted by customers. JIT considers inventory as a waste to be reduced by producing in smaller lots more frequently, so fewer items are in the pipeline (Bonney and Jaber, 2011). It also improves quality, productivity, responsiveness, machines availability, workforce flexibility, space and equipment utilization, flow, and relationship with suppliers (Cavinato, 1990; Jones, 1990; Mehra and Inman, 1992). JIT is based on continuous improvement of which reducing setup time (cost) is its primary driver (Zangwill, 1987; Jones, 1990;Cavinato, 1991). Readers are referred toShow MoreRelatedEconomic Order Quantity and Its Implementation on Business1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY AND ITÃ¢â¬â¢S IMPLMENTATION IN BUSINESS Any business man, executive, and entrepreneur should know the basic tools for a company to develop in the market, regardless how big the business is, there are many factors involve. It is very important in every business to handle well developed financial and logistics processes. In order for a company to handle a correct logistic, without matter if it is a goods or services company, it is necessary to identify many factors. Some ofRead MoreMarketing Skittles1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschannels are very important to both the manufacturer and the consumer. These channels are the way the manufacture releases their product to the consumer for purchasing. Manufactures can choose either a direct channel which is the means of selling customers or accepting orders from them. A sales force calls on customers and prospects to present information on products and persuade them to place orders. Retailer channel is the channel that manufacturers sell their goods directly to large retailers suchR ead MoreEco 365 Supply Demand Paper1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimpact of individual choices that are made within the economic market. In contrast, macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy as a whole. One example in the simulation of microeconomics was when the property manager was expected to lower the vacancy rate from twenty-eight percent down to fifteen percent. The other example of microeconomics was when the property manager was given a goal to bring the vacancy rate down to zero percent in order to obtain full occupancy. Both of these microeconomicRead MoreCase1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCASE: FabQual Ltd. FabQual Ltd. manufactures parts and subassemblies for a number of small-volume manufacturers of specialized construction equipment, including bulldozers, graders, and cement mixers. FabQual also manufactures and distributes spare parts. The company has made a specialty of providing spare parts for equipment no longer in production; this includes wear parts that are no longer in production for any OEM. The Materials Management Group (MMG) orders partsÃ¢â¬â both for delivery to aRead MoreThe Sturdivant Sound Systems ( Sss )806 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis paper is about the Sturdivant Sound Systems (SSS); the Sturdivant sound systems is a company that manufactures and sells home and auto sound systems. This paper will enumerate the problems the company is currently experiencing, relevant background information and actions taken by the company to solve its problems Recommendations will be included and calculation of the optimum order quantity, appropriate reorder point, and inventory decisions will be stated. Finally, a conclusion will be inferredRead MoreThe Supply Chain Management Network927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRisk Pooling In this economic climate that we find ourselves in at the present time organization is looking for a way to cut cost and save money, at the same time providing the best product that they can provide to their customers. In this highly competitive economic market place their seems to be some many choices for consumers to choose from that they have their pick of the market place. In order fro organizations to keep up with them they have to make sure that they always have the appropriateRead MoreEquilibrium Of Supply And Demand1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconsumer happy. The equilibrium needs to be balanced in order for both parties to be satisfied. Supply is the quantity of a good or item that is placed in the market for sale. Supply quantity is based on the price of the item, availability, and several cost factors. A manufacturer needs to have pricing set in order to keep a leading edge amongst the other competitors. A manufacturer has to keep up with the supply of their products in order for the demand to stay level. When the supply starts to dwindleRead MoreThe Price Mechanism And Resource Allocation1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEconomics is a system that attempts to acquire a balance between the available resources and demands. Currently, three types of economies are recognised in the world; command market, mix market and the free market. Each of these types has different systems. While in the command economy, the central authorities make all the economic decisions, in the free economy, the households and firms are responsible for all economic policies (Sloman and Garratt. 2010, P.17). On the other hand, the mixed economyRead MoreRecommendations for PPCo929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyear from 1983. However, the 10 largest manufactures accounted for roughly 50% of the disk drive purchases. The top 50 manufactures accounted for roughly 80% of the disk drive purchases. This is an issue because manufactures due primarily to their concentration have pricing power over the producers of disk drives. They can command lower pricing due in large part to their overall size. In addition, due to the concentration of manufacturers, an extreme economic downturn could cause a financially troubledRead MoreDistribution Of Distribution : Procurement Department Purchases The Raw Materials1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmaterials; the purchased material is then stored in the warehouses. Its warehouse departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s duty is to check the placement of that raw material, at what quantity and when is it needed, so that they could provide the material to production department accordingly. Planning department arranges the raw materials in case of shortage, what quantity is need in the next quarter and which type. Basically the planning department is forecasting. The raw material is then tested by the quality assurance department
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The 13 American colonies revolted against their British rulers in 1775. The war began on April 19, when British soldiers fired on the Minutemen of Lexington, Mass. The fighting ended with the surrender of the British at Yorktown on Oct. 19, 1781. In 1783 Great Britain signed a formal treaty recognizing the independence of the colonies. Through the hardships of life in a wild, new land, the American settlers gained strength and a firm belief in the rights and liberties of the individual man. They revolted because England interfered with their trade and industry, demanded unjust taxes, and sent British troops to compel obedience. At first they fought only for their rights. After a year of war they fought for aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Between these two societies there could not be much in common. With such opposing viewpoints and extreme change in social and economic structure, America began to yearn for independence and self-rule, and break away from the rule of Imperial Britain. The many taxes imposed on the colonies by English leaders also created great conflict between the two sides. American colonist felt that they were not represented in Parliament and therefore could not tax its people. But Parliament felt that they looked out for the best interest of the entire empire, therefore had the right to enact legislation. This caused political unrest and uprisings within the colonies. Protest took the form of newspapers, sermons, and pamphlets. Riots and events such as the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party began to show the colonist distrust of British rulers. With tensions rising between the factions, the Americans were opting for a drastic change in the system. When America finally decides to declare its independence and go to war, it is a sign of radical action. Britains army was four times as big and consisted of well trained and experienced soldiers. Americans, on the other hand, had soldiers who were poorly trained and equipped. There was no central system of housing, paying, or feeding of the troops, and supplies of gunpowder and clothing were inadequate. Add to that, the jealousy and strife withinShow MoreRelatedA Conservative Revolution1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesConservative Revolution Whether the American Revolution should be viewed as a conservative or radical movement is a hotly debated topic among historians, and each side provides a convincing case. Historians who view the movement as radical praise the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ effort to send the British crownÃ¢â¬â¢s rule and effective implementation of a democratic government to the extent the world had never seen before. On the other hand, historians who view the American Revolution as a conservative movement note thatRead MoreWas the American Revolution Conservative?1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Was the American Revolution Conservative? (Order A2098864) During the 1950s the mainstream historical thinking concentrated on the idea that the American Revolution was a conservative movement which did not cause great political or social upheavals. Many looked at the later French Revolution as an example of a more radicalized and revolutionary movement and determined that the American Revolution was tame by comparison. And while it is true that many of the legal and political arguments madeRead MoreRadicalism of the American Revolution990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbook Radicalism of the American Revolution, written by Gordon S. Wood, the author states, The Revolution was the most radical and far reaching event in American history.Ã¢â¬ What about the American Revolution made it so Ã¢â¬Å"radical?Ã¢â¬ Wood believes it to be so radical because it not only brought change politically from British monarch to American rule which is what we are used to, but it also brought about changes in the basic structure of American society. Within the revol ution there was more than justRead MoreThe Beginning of Radicalism in Politics1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1797 when he declared a radical reform of the electoral system. This led people to use the term to show support for the movement of parliamentary reform. Radicalism was initially confined to the middle and upper classes in the 18th century but the lower classes advanced radicalism in the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Radicalism began for many reasons. The Scottish people began to see radical change through the Scottish enlightenment, the American Revolution and the French Revolution. Ideas of a Scottish enlightenmentRead MoreAnalysis Of Black Militancy Vs. Personal Slant By Nikki Giovanni1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvolatile time with racial tensions coming to a head; however there was a Black Power Movement along with a Black Arts Movement taking place that inspired many black poets, writers, artists, and more to share their message and frustrations through the arts. One of these poets was Nikki Giovanni who was a major force in the Black Arts Movement. Nikki GiovanniÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier works mainly dealt with themes of black militancy, revolution and black empowerment. One of her poems that focused on and expressed these themesRead MoreIt Was the American Revolution and NOT the American War for Independence631 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIndependence was the main focus of the colonies after monarch rule of the British. During this key period of American history, The American Revolution would be a more appropriate term instead of The War for Independence. In the diction ary, the term revolution is defined as an overthrow of one government and its replacement with another. The American Revolution gives a broader sense of what is going on; starting from the initial ideology of independence, the acts and protests carried outRead MoreHoward Zinn s Views On American Revolution950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThese two historians viewed the nature of American Revolution from two opposite different perspectives. Zinn viewed the American Revolution as an effort to preserve AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s status; while Wood looked at Revolution as an event that incorporated sense of equality among all Americans. Zinn was able to present the argument better as evidences he provided to support his argument seemed to make more sense and were closer to reality. Howard argued American Revolution as an effort of members of colonial elitesRead MoreThe Abolition Movement Of The American Revolution1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAfter the American Revolution, numerous amounts of slaves were freed and began to express their indignation towards slavery and racial discrimination. Abolitionists believed that slavery was immoral and illegal and supported these ideas with the two most important laws at that time, the Bible and the Constitution. Although the ideals between abolitionists were similar, their means of bringing slavery to an end were completely different. The late 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s brought the distinction of tactics between radicalRead MoreThe 1950s : A Decade Of Prosperity, Conformity, And Consensus1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconsensus, and the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s as a decade of turbulence, protest, and disillusionment. Do you agree or disagree with this view? Show evidence to support your argument. With the overwhelming amount of Levittown houses, the obsession to obtain the perfect American Ã¢â¬Å"ideal familyÃ¢â¬ as seen on TV and the unspoken agreement to fear any and all foreign ideas and values, the 1950s were revealed to be a decade of prosperity, conformity and consensus. Just ten years later the atmosphere in America was shockingly different;Read MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen the American Civil War began in the spring of 1861, those flocking to enlistment stations in states both north and south chiefly defined their cause as one of preservation. From Maine to Minnesota, young men joined up to preserve the Union. From Virginia to Texas, their future foes on the battlefield enlisted to preserve a social order, a social order at its core built on the institution of slavery and racial superiority . Secession had not been framed by prominent Southerners like Robert Toombs
string(92) " professionals in order to maintain high standards across the profession \(Loppacher et al\." Executive Summary This paper analyses the recent changes to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council and how such changes are comparable to the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council. Important parameters of the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council are discussed, such as category management, whole lifecycle approach, skills and capacity of procurement professionals, and openness and transparency. These dimensions are compared to the principles and objectives listed in Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. We will write a custom essay sample on A Critical Analysis of the Procurement Policy for a Local Government or any similar topic only for you Order Now In addition, the paper provides recommendations to improve procurement practices available at Leeds City Council. Eventually, a tender specification sheet is provided to invite bids from private players to run the woodhouse car park in front of the University. Key performance indicators to evaluate tenders are included. Introduction Leeds City Council has made certain changes to its procurement strategy recently. The council emphasised specific elements indicating the importance placed on ensuring high quality procurement services. Such elements refer to category management, whole lifecycle approach, skills and capacity of procurement professionals, and openness and transparency (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). These dimensions are similar to the principles and objectives set in Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the recent changes to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council and how they compare to Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s Procurement Strategy Compared to the Procurement Strategy of Staffordshire County Council Leeds City Council demonstrates a primary objective to improve outcomes and value for money obtained from a wide range of goods and services it purchases. Therefore, the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy is based on essential principles to include whole lifecycle approach, accountability to the public, openness and transparency (Hawkins et al. 2011). The strategy indicates the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns to rely on expertise in the field as well as utilise relevant examples of adequate practices maintained at local and national levels. The common expectation presented with the enforcement of the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s new strategy is to realise its full potential within two years. The council extensively supports not only its ambitions but also the ambitions of its partners in the process of delivering quality outcomes for service users (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). A relevant part of Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy is the adoption of a category managem ent approach, where procurement professionals tend to group together related purchasing. Such approach is entirely focused on exploring variances in buying needs and provider offerings (Iyer and Pazgal 2008). In this way, the council is concerned with maintaining high quality of services along with savings. Similarly, the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council presents diverse orientation in terms of proper identification of the goods and services purchased by activity and function. Staffordshire County Council also states the importance of achieving value for money. Another recent change to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is associated with the adoption of a whole lifecycle approach. It is essential to point out that such approach starts from ongoing evaluation of buying needs as well as analysing different options. In fact, the mentioned approach receives optimal application through careful preparation and procurement (Niezen and Weller 2006). Mobilising the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s resources is a significant priority to the professionals responsible for the implementation of the procurement strategy. Such principle corresponds to Staffordshire County CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy of relying on the voice of all people of Staffordshire on specific issues that matter to them (Staffordshire County Council 2014). This shows a strong sense of collaboration with residents and communities in order to identify proper solutions to any emerging problems. Staffordshire County Council places importance on leading and influencing as well as sharing knowl edge with representatives from the public sector in Staffordshire (Kennekae 2012). Early engagement is crucial in maintaining savings and improvements that further reflect in transformational changes in the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. The whole lifecycle approach adopted by Leeds City Council regarding its procurement strategy assumes that service delivery should not be compromised. Other significant dimensions of this approach relate to contact management and exit which contribute to achieving extensive value for many. In addition, the recent changes observed in the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council and that of Staffordshire County Council reflect the importance of the skills and capacity of procurement professionals. They are mostly responsible for ensuring the maintenance of a relevant procurement process based on supporting the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s business continuity needs (Niezen and Weller 2006). The latter is extensively manifested in the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council. Procurement professionals structure arrangements with key providers in an attempt to manage the risks pertaining to the process of supplying goods and services. Thus, professionals in the respective field are expected to set high quality processes through cross-functional strategic activities that are evident in both Leeds City Council and Staffordshire County Council (Loppacher et al. 2006). Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy considers the significance of employing common principles a nd rules which are properly designed to correspond to the needs of all included categories. Emphasis is on reflecting the needs of the specific service areas along with stakeholder needs. This recent change in the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is in line with ensuring quality outcomes (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). Such procurement strategy is comparable to the one of Staffordshire County Council due to the process of aligning delivery of goods and services with the corporate needs identified by Staffordshire County Council (Staffordshire County Council 2014). The respective council utilises the expertise of procurement professionals to ensure social values outcomes as well as sufficient savings achieved through a balanced scorecard used for procurement. The focus on the skills and capacity of procurement professionals is among the improved areas of Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy. Having skilled and experienced staff is important in delivering high quality outcomes to local communities. Moreover, Leeds City Council manifests its responsibility to support the development and training of procurement professionals in order to maintain high standards across the profession (Loppacher et al. You read "A Critical Analysis of the Procurement Policy for a Local Government" in category "Essay examples" 2006). There is a solid sense of accountability evident in the practice of each procurement professional working at Leeds City Council. In comparison, Staffordshire County Council emphasises the capacity of its procurement staff in terms of providing legal training packages. This indicates an ongoing process of developing the knowledge and expertise of all professionals involved in the procurement practice (Arora et al. 2007). In this way, procurement professionals can work together with other experts in the field to implement the specific objectives listed in the procurement strategy of both Leeds City Council and Staffordshire County Council. One of the observable recent changes in the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is that the central procurement function is projected to serve as a flexible source of excellence and thus is accountable for providing a substantial source of expertise. Procurement professionals working in Leeds City Council and Staffordshire County Council are extensively trained to demonstrate ownership and accountability to the public in their respective communities (Kennekae 2012). Elements of structured governance and assurance make Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy rather effective. However, the procurement strategy of Staffordshire County Council is oriented towards indicating a Ã¢â¬Ëcustomer of choiceÃ¢â¬â¢ model of delivering services. This implies that procurement professionals working in Staffordshire County Council are responsible for the creation of greater visibility of the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements for goods, services and provider performance (Staffordshire C ounty Council 2014). Therefore, professionals are determined to ensure proper communications and organising skills that help them in the establishment and implementation of linkage. Similarly, procurement professionals in Leeds City Council are devoted to research good practice documents and toolkits while trying to reinforce their skills and capacity. Furthermore, the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council is comparable to the one of Staffordshire County Council in the aspect of openness and transparency. Both councils indicate an ambition of being open and transparent which reflects in providing visible contracts as well as constantly updated management information (Kim and Netessine 2012). Leeds City Council places importance on presenting clear and accessible tender processes and documentation. Openness and transparency ensure the formation of a positive relationship between the council and its procurement partners. Likewise, such aspects are closely linked with instilling confidence in the public regarding the adopted procurement approach (McLean 2008). In comparison, the procurement strategy implemented by Staffordshire County Council indicates its staffÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to ensure compliance and probity which may be associated with the principles of openness and transparency manifested by Leeds City Council. Recommendations The recent changes to the procurement strategy of Leeds City Council indicate that the respective councilÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is comparable to the strategy of Staffordshire County Council. Yet certain recommendations are listed below to achieve further improvements in Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy: Procurement professionals should work on creating an inclusive procurement strategy in which smaller providers are presented with an opportunity to participate (McLean 2008); The council should constantly research and update its available procurement tools to guarantee competitively established standards in the field; The council should consider the removal of unnecessary restrictions which would allow the institution to evaluate suppliers in an objective manner rather than focus on limiting business criteria such as revenue (Loppacher et al. 2006); Professionals need to demonstrate sensitivity to financing issues to include established payment policies; It is fundamental to indicate potential hidden costs in terms of providing clear information on the actual insurance, liability as well as regulatory requirements; this practice would allow innovative suppliers to compete (Hawkins et al. 2011) Conclusion The paper indicated an analysis of Leeds City CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s procurement strategy with special focus on its recent changes and how they are comparable to the procurement strategy outlined by Staffordshire County Council (Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy 2013). Thus, significant aspects of both procurement strategies have been discussed in order to identify the focus of procurement professionals working in the two councils. Certain aspects of the two procurement strategies were found similar especially with regards to category management and lifecycle approach. Moreover, the efforts of procurement professionals are equally important to the work of either Leeds City Council or Staffordshire County Council (Staffordshire County Council 2014). In this way, the paper ensured adequate arguments about the effectiveness of the procurement strategies adopted by these institutions. Tender Specification Sheet Leeds City Council is seeking tenders from various private providers for the maintenance and operation of the woodhouse car park in front of the University. The intention is that the car park will operate as a proper public amenity. There are certain standards of services that will be followed. The respective parking services are set at prices identified at proper market levels. Prices are competitive in order to encourage visitor parking regarding close distance to local businesses. Discouraging the practice of day-long parking is essential for the maintenance of the woodhouse car park. The park will be open 24 hours a day, seven days/ week. Personal security will be ensured to customers and visitors. They need to feel secure in the identified car park area. The integration of area security is a priority to the Council. All tenderers are invited to submit their applications by providing the following documentation: -Financial Proposal for a period of 3 years; -Details on the percentage of the turnover expected to be paid annually to the Council; -Evidence indicating previous experience in the area of car park projects; -Providing details of the resources available to complete the project; In order to evaluate the bids from the private players, it is important to provide a set of key performance indicators that will be consistently used (Iyer and Pazgal 2008). The first performance indicator is that the selected tender should provide the best value for money at reasonable cost. This may result from balancing cost and quality. Another key performance indicator that will be used to assess the bids is that of prequalification. Such indicator is implemented to make sure that only those who meet specific criteria will be considered for inclusion to bid (Loppacher et al. 2006). In addition, prequalification is associated with responses to a set of questions provided by the Council. Major questions should include elements of quality, capacity to supply and financial competence. The indicator of open and flexible communication is fundamental as no private player should be given preference. Even though meetings with tenderers who have placed their bids may be necessary at a cer tain point, they should take place solely for clarifying specific aspects regarding the tender (Hawkins et al. 2011). It is important to use recognised channels of communication in order to avoid confusion of private players or any misunderstanding of presented information. References Arora, P., Garg, A. K. and Vaidya, S. C. (2007), Ã¢â¬ËEfficacy of Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility and Procurement StrategyÃ¢â¬â¢, South Asian Journal of Management, Vol. 14(1) pp105-119 Hawkins, T., Gravier, M. and Powley, E. (2011), Ã¢â¬ËPublic versus Private Sector Procurement Ethics and Strategy: What Each Sector Can Learn from the OtherÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 103(4) pp567-586 Iyer, G. and Pazgal, A. (2008), Ã¢â¬ËProcurement Bidding with RestrictionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Quantitative Marketing Economics, Vol. 6(2) pp177-204 Kennekae, L. (2012), Ã¢â¬ËProcurement Strategies to Serve the Public Good,Ã¢â¬â¢ International Trade Forum, 2 pp11-111 Kim, S. H. and Netessine, S. (2011), Ã¢â¬ËCollaborative Cost Reduction and Component Procurement under Information AsymmetryÃ¢â¬â¢, INSEAD Working Papers Collections, 33 pp1-40 Leeds City Council Procurement Strategy (2013), Leeds City Council [Online]. Available at: http://www.leeds.gov.uk/docs/Procurement%20Strategy%20V1.0%20PUBLISH%2030.09.2013.pdf [Accessed: 29 April 2014]. Loppacher, J. S., Luchi, R., Cagliano, R. and Spina, G. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËGlobal Sourcing and Procurement Strategy: A Model of Interrelated DecisionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Supply Chain Forum: International Journal, Vol. 7(1) pp34-46 McLean, S. (2008), Ã¢â¬ËChoice in Government Software Procurement: A Winning StrategyÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Public Procurement, Vol.8(1) pp70-97 Niezen, C. and Weller, W. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËProcurement as StrategyÃ¢â¬â¢, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 84(9) pp22-24 Staffordshire County Council (2014), Staffordshire Procurement [Online]. Available at: https://www.staffordshire.gov.uk/business/procurement/homepage.aspx [Accessed: 29 April 2014]. How to cite A Critical Analysis of the Procurement Policy for a Local Government, Essay examples
He was the third classical musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna (in 2001), the highest civilian honour in India and gained worldwide acclaim for playing the shehnai for more than eight decades Early life and background Bismillah Khan was born at Bhirung Raut Ki Gali, in Dumraon, Bihar as the second son of Paigambar Khan and Mitthan. He was named as Qamaruddin to rhyme with Shamsuddin, their first son. His grandfather, Rasool Baksh Khan uttered Bismillah (the basmala) after looking at the newborn, thus he was named Bismillah Khan. His ancestors were court musicians and used to play in Naqqar khana in the princely states of Bhojpur, now in Bihar. His father was a shehnai player in the court of Maharaja Keshav Prasad Singh of Dumraon Estate, Bihar. At the age of six, he moved to his maternal house, located close to the Ganges at Varanasi. He received his training under his uncle, the late Ali Baksh Vilayatu, a shehnai player attached to Varanasis Vishwanath Temple. We will write a custom essay sample on Ustad Bismillah or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Religious beliefs Though a pious Shiite Muslim, he was also, like many Indian musicians, regardless of religion, a devotee of Saraswati, the Hindu Goddess of wisdom and arts, and often played at Hindu temples, including the famous Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi, on the banks of the river Ganga. He also performed for spiritual master Prem Rawat. Career Bismillah Khan was perhaps single handedly responsible for making the shehnai a famous classical instrument. He brought the shehnai to the center stage of Indian music with his concert in the Calcutta All India Music Conference in 1937. He was credited with having almost monopoly over the instrument as he and the shehnai are almost synonyms. Khan is one of the finest musicians in post-independent Indian Classical music and one of the best examples of Hindu-Muslim unity in India and had played shenai to audience across the world. He was known to be devoted to his art form that he referred to shehnai as his begum, wife in Urdu, after his wife died. On his death, as an honour, his shehnai was also buried along with him. He was known for his vision of spreading peace and love through music.
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They viewed communism as a secular, millennial religion that informed the Gremlins worldview and actions and made it the chief threat to American security, liberty, and world peace. They rejected the moral equivalence of democratic and Communist governments and concluded that until the regime in Moscow changed only American and Allied strength could curb the Soviets. In early 1947 the British government, which was socialist but anti-Communist, secretly told Washington its treasury was empty and it could no longer give military and economic aid to Greece or Turkey, requested the U S. Sake over. Achaeans convinced Truman to act quickly lest Greece be taken over by its communist artisans who were at the time strongly supported by the Soviet government working through the communist Bulgarian and Yugoslav governments. If Greece fell, Turkey would be helpless and soon the eastern Mediterranean would fall under Stalins control. Following Cohesions advice, Truman in 1947 announced the Truman Doctrine of containing Communist expansion by furnishing military and economic American aid to Europe and Asia, and particularly to Greece and Turkey. We will write a custom essay sample on The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy the Truman Doctrine or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Republican Congress, after extensive hearings, approved this historic change in U. S. Foreign policy in a bill signed May 22, 1947. To whip up American support for the policy of containment, Truman overstated the Soviet threat to the United States. In turn, his statements inspired a wave of hysterical anti-communism throughout the country and set the stage for the emergence of McCarthy. Containment also called for extensive economic aid to assist the recovery of war-torn Western Europe. With many of the regions nations economically and politically unstable, the United States feared that local communist parties, erected by Moscow, would capitalize on their wartime record of resistance to the Nazis and come to power. Something needed to be done, Secretary of State George Marshall noted, for the patient is sinking while the doctors deliberate. Marshall was formerly the highest ranking officer in the U. S. Armed forces and credited as the chief organizer of the American military victory in World War II.In mid-1947 Marshall asked troubled European nations to draw up a program directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. The Soviets participated in the first planning meeting, then departed rather than share economic data on their resources and problems, and submit to Western controls on the expenditure of the aid. The remaining 16 nations hammered out a request that finally came to $17 thousand million for a four-year period. In early 1948 Congress voted to assist European economic recovery, dubbed the Marshall Plan, and generally regarded as one of the most successful U.S. Foreign policy initiatives in history. He followed up with the Marshall Plan, which was enacted into law as the European Recovery Program (ERR) and led ultimately to NATO, the North Atlantic Alliance for military defense, signed in 1949. Soviet domination of Eastern Europe alarmed the West. The United States led the effort to create a military alliance to complement economic efforts at containment. In 1949 the United States and 11 other countries established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), an alliance based on the principle of collective security.An attack against one was to be considered an attack against all, to be met by appropriate force. The next year, the United States defined its defense aims clearly. The National Security Council (NCSC) undertook a full-fledged review of American foreign and defense policy. The resulting document, known as NCSC-68, signaled a new direction in American security policy. Based on the assumption that the Soviet Union was engaged in a fanatical effort to seize control of all governments wherever possible, the document committed America to assist allied nations anywhere in the world which seemed threatened by Soviet aggression.The United States proceeded o increase defense spending dramatically in response to Soviet threats against Europe and the American, British and French presence in West Berlin. United States support for the partition of Palestine was crucial to the adoption Of the UN partition plan and to the creation Of the State Of Israel. During World War II, the USA was anxious to maintain good relations with Saudi Arabia. President Roosevelt had promised King Saudi that the USA would make no policy decisions about Palestine without consulting the Arabs, though Roosevelt tried to enlist Saudi support for allowing Jewish immigration to Palestine.Following Roosevelt verbal promise to Saudi to consult the Arabs about Palestine policy, he reiterated the promise in writing on April 5, 1945. However, a week later, Roosevelt was dead, replaced by Vice President Harry S. Truman, and the end of the war created a different political reality as well as bringing the revelation of massive murder of Jews in the Holocaust. Traumas support for a Jewish state had evolved over time, shaped by a number of factors. Though LOL Henderson and others in the StateDepartment had insisted that a Jewish state would compromise the position Of the US in the Middle East, the opposite position was equally tenable. The notion that Henderson and Marshall advocated, that the Zionists were communists and would therefore side with the USSR was founded on personal prejudice rather than fact, and backfired when the possibility was raised that the USSR would intervene on behalf of Israel, absent IIS support The idea that Truman had initially entertained, and that the State Department encouraged, that a Jewish state could only be defended by hundreds of husbands of US troops, proved to be groundless.It is probably this realization more than any that turned the tide, and overcame the single greatest objection. On May 14, 1 948, Truman announced recognition of the new state of Israel, making the United States the first major power to do so. We can see that Truman decisions of containment were successful in stopping and preventing the USSR to take over or influence Turkey, Greece, and Israel. This alone is a great victory for democracy. These three countries also were able to joined NATO.